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Искусственный интеллект Nemesida WAF

Pentestit corporate blog Information Security *


Есть мнение, что искусственный интеллект — это не больше, чем маркетинговый ход. В статье мы покажем, как искусственный интеллект Nemesida WAF позволяет выявлять и блокировать атаки на веб-приложения с поразительной точностью в 99,96%.

Теория: принцип работы Nemesida AI


Машинное обучение (распознавание образов, или, как сейчас модно говорить, искусственный интеллект) применяется в тех областях, где анализ данных, проводимый человеком, становится невозможным из-за больших объемов информации или неполноты выделяемой информации. В общем, когда у нас в арсенале накопилось больше миллиона запросов к различным веб-приложениям, решение о необходимости применения машинного обучения назрело само собой.

На основе анализа научных исследований и существующих прототипов была построена схема работы Nemeisda AI, а после анализа данных сформировано признаковое пространство из элементов. Поскольку большинство признаков являются текстовыми, производилась их векторизация для дальнейшего использования в алгоритме распознавания. Поскольку поля запросов не являются отдельными словами, а зачастую состоят из последовательностей символов, было принято решение об использовании подхода на основе анализа частоты встречаемости n-грамм (TF-IDF).

Анализ имеющихся данных позволил сформировать пространство признаков, на основе которого и был построен классификатор. Задача обнаружения атак с математической точки зрения формализовалась как классическая задача классификации (два класса: легитимный и нелегитимный трафик). Выбор алгоритмов производился по критерию доступности реализации и возможности тестирования. Наилучшим образом себя показал алгоритм градиентного бустинга (AdaBoost), который позволил на 100 млн. запросов обеспечить 99.96% точности при уровне ложных срабатываний менее 0,04%. Таким образом, после обучения принятие решения Nemesida WAF осуществляется c учетом статистических свойств анализируемых данных, а не на основе детерминированных признаков (сигнатур) атак.

Недостаток сигнатурного метода обнаружения атак по сравнению с AI очевиден — высокая вероятность обхода WAF с большим количеством ложных срабатываний (от 5% до 15%). Тем не менее, сигнатурный анализ является основным источником при обучении и обеспечивает базовую защиту веб-приложения на период обучения Nemesida AI.

Атаки, ложные срабатывания и искусственный интеллект


Для того, чтобы понимать как работает Nemesida AI и какие возможности предоставляет, рассмотрим несколько примеров.

Блокирование атаки сигнатурным методом
Пример атаки, которая будет заблокирована сигнатурным методом. Такой запрос будет заблокирован из-за вхождения цепочки сигнатур «UNION + SELECT»:

Пример 1 - эксплуатация SQL Injection
POST /wp-content/plugins/answer-my-question/modal.php HTTP/1.1
Host: vulns.pentestit.ru
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Ubuntu; Linux x86_64; rv:56.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/56.0
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.5
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
Content-Length: 113
Cookie: _ym_uid=1505734077122804829; _ym_isad=2; _ym_visorc_45042173=w
Connection: close
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1

id=0+UNION+SELECT+1%2C2%2C3%2C4%2C5%2C6%2Cslug%2Cterm_group%2Cname%2C10%2C11%2C12+
FROM+wp_terms+WHERE+term_id%3D1

В этом примере запрос будет заблокирован сигнатурным модулем Nemesida WAF, не смотря на частичную обфускацию:

Пример 2 - эксплуатация SQL Injection
action=getTopic&topic_id=1 anD0 unio%4e %0a sELEc%74 %23%0a 0b001110010011100100111001001110010011100100100000011101010110111001101001011011110110111000
10000001110011011001010110110001100101011000110111010000100000001100010011000100101100011000
11011011110110111001100011011000010111010001011111011101110111001100101000001100000111100000
11001101100001001011000111010101110011011001010111001001011111011011000110111101100111011010
01011011100010110001110101011100110110010101110010010111110111000001100001011100110111001100
10110001110101011100110110010101110010010111110110010101101101011000010110100101101100001010
01001000000110011001110010011011110110110100100000011101110111000001011111011101010111001101
10010101110010011100110010000001101100011010010110110101101001011101000010000000110001001000
0000101101001011010010000000101101,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,1,2 %0a&group_id=0

id=-1 uniO%6e/*a*/seLEC%74{d1},{d2},{d3},{d4},{d0},{d6},{d7},{d(%23%0aseLEC%74{a0x3c})},NULL,{d10},{d11},{d12}--

Ложные срабатывания при сигнатурном анализе
Теперь рассмотрим примеры запросов, которые не являются атаками на веб-приложение, но все-же будут заблокированы WAF. Результат обработки такого запроса — ложное срабатывание:

Пример 3 - ложное срабатывание при сигнатурном методе выявления атак
GET /function shift() { [native code] } HTTP/1.1
Host: vulns.pentestit.ru
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Ubuntu; Linux x86_64; rv:56.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/56.0
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.5
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Cookie: _ym_uid=1505734077122804829; _ym_isad=2; _ym_visorc_45042173=w
Connection: close
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1

Обработка запроса ниже также приведет в ложному срабатыванию при использовании сигнатурного метода определения атак:

Пример 4 - ложное срабатывание при сигнатурном методе выявления атак
GET /.../news HTTP/1.1
Host: vulns.pentestit.ru
User-agent: Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; Googlebot/2.1; +http://www.google.com/bot.html)
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.5
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Cookie: _ym_uid=1505734077122804829; _ym_isad=2; _ym_visorc_45042173=w
Connection: close
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1

Nemesida AI в действии: повышаем точность определения атак, устраняя ложные срабатывания

Рассмотрим атаки, которые не определятся сигнатурным методом, но будут заблокированы Nemesida AI:

Пример 5 - Payload Obfuscation
POST /wp-content/plugins/answer-my-question/modal.php HTTP/1.1
Host: vulns.pentestit.ru
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64; rv:52.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/52.0
Accept: */*
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.5
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
Connection: close
Content-Length: 78053

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Примеры ниже (6, 7) не приведут к прямой эксплуатации уязвимости, но способны выявить наличие уязвимостей в веб-приложении, поэтому будут заблокированы Nemesida AI:

Пример 6 - выявление наличия SQL Injection
POST /wp-content/plugins/testplugin/form.php HTTP/1.1
Host: vulns.pentestit.ru
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64; rv:55.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/55.0
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
Accept-Language: ru-RU,ru;q=0.8,en-US;q=0.5,en;q=0.3
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Cookie: _ym_uid=1501589484566174132; _ym_isad=2; _ym_visorc_45042173=w
Connection: close
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1
Content-Type: multipart/form-data; boundary=
Content-Length: 86

— Content-Disposition: form-data; name=«id»

1 AND 1083=1083 AND (1427=1427;

Пример 7 - Выявление наличия SQL Injection
POST /wp-content/plugins/testplugin/form.php HTTP/1.1
Host: vulns.pentestit.ru
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64; rv:55.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/55.0
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
Accept-Language: ru-RU,ru;q=0.8,en-US;q=0.5,en;q=0.3
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Cookie: _ym_uid=1501589484566174132; _ym_isad=2; _ym_visorc_45042173=w
Connection: close
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1
Content-Type: multipart/form-data; boundary=
Content-Length: 119

— Content-Disposition: form-data; name=«id»

1 AND 2947=LIKE('ABCDEFG',UPPER(HEX(RANDOMBLOB(500000000/2))))


Nemesida WAF: до и после обучения


Абсолютную точность в своей работе Nemesida WAF демонстрирует после заверения режима обучения, а до этого момента выявление и блокирование атак будет происходить за счет сигнатурного анализа и цепочек правил. Качественно составленные сигнатуры Nemesida WAF обеспечат достойную защиту веб-приложения на период обучение с минимальным количеством ложных срабатываний.

Как только Nemesida WAF произведет обработку ~150k запросов (примерно 30 мин. для среднестатистического веб-приложения), режим обучения завершается и Nemesida AI будет активирован. Сигнатурный метод отключается и с этого момента выявление и блокирование атак осуществляется модулем Nemesida AI с точностью в ~99.96%.



Зеленое изображение мозга в личном кабинете свидетельствует о том, что Nemesida AI активирован.

Заключение


Использование машинного обучения в Nemesida WAF позволяет добиться поразительной точности выявления атак (~99.96%), свести к нулю ложные срабатывания (~0.04%) и даже определять атаки нулевого дня (0-day). Кроме этого, Nemesida AI вместе с Nemesida Scanner умеют в автоматическом режиме создавать правила VirtualPatch'а, но об этом я расскажу в следующей статье.


Искусственный интеллект Nemesida WAF — это мощный инструмент для выявления и блокирования атак на веб-приложения, а не просто маркетинг или конкурентное преимущество. Чтобы ощутить это на практике — запросите предустановленную VM с Trial-версией Nemesida WAF или активируйте облачную защиту на 2 недели бесплатно.
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