PVS-Studio in the Clouds: GitLab CI/CD

    Рисунок 2

    This article continues the series of publications on usage of PVS-Studio in cloud systems. This time we'll look at the way the analyzer works along with GitLab CI, which is a product made by GitLab Inc. Static analyzer integration in a CI system allows detecting bugs right after the project build and is a highly effective way to reduce the cost of finding bugs.

    A list of our other articles on integrating into cloud CI systems:


    Information about the software used


    GitLab is an online service designed to manage repositories. You can use it directly in a browser on the official website by registering your account, or install and deploy it on your own server.

    PVS-Studio is a tool designed to detect errors and potential vulnerabilities in the source code of programs, written in C, C++, C# and Java. Works in 64-bit systems on Windows, Linux and macOS and can analyze code for 32-bit, 64-bit and embedded ARM platforms. If it's the first time you're using the analyzer to check your projects, we recommend that you read the article on how to quickly check out the most interesting PVS-Studio warnings and evaluate the tool's capabilities.

    The OBS project will be used to demonstrate abilities of the static analyzer in the cloud. Open Broadcaster Software is a free and open set of programs for video recording and streaming. OBS provides real-time device and source interception, scene composition, decoding, recording and broadcasting. Data is transferred mainly through the Real Time Messaging Protocol, and can be sent to any source supporting RTMP — the program has ready-made pre-installations for live broadcasting on the most popular streaming platforms.

    Configuration


    To start working with GitLab, go the website and click Register:

    Рисунок 6

    You can register by linking accounts of other services such as GitHub, Twitter, Google, BitBucket, Saleforce or simply by filling out the open form. After authorization, GitLab invites us to create a project:

    Рисунок 7

    A list of available platforms to import files:

    Рисунок 33


    Let's create an empty project for clarity:

    Рисунок 17


    Next, we need to upload our project in the created repository. Do it using the hints that appear in the window of the created project.

    Рисунок 1


    When you start the task, GitLab CI takes instructions from the .gitlab-ci.yml file. You can add it either by clicking Set up CI/CD,or simply by creating a local repository and uploading it to the site. Let's follow the first option:

    Рисунок 21



    Now make a minimal wrapper for the script:

    image: debian
    job:
      script:

    Download the analyzer and sendemail utility, which we will need later:

    - apt-get update && apt-get -y install wget gnupg 
    - wget -O - https://files.viva64.com/etc/pubkey.txt | apt-key add - 
    - wget -O /etc/apt/sources.list.d/viva64.list
      https://files.viva64.com/etc/viva64.list
    - apt-get update && apt-get -y install pvs-studio
      sendemail

    Next, we will install dependencies and utilities for building OBS:

    - apt-get -y install build-essential cmake  
      make pkg-config libx11-dev libgl1-mesa-dev 
      libpulse-dev libxcomposite-dev 
      libxinerama-dev libv4l-dev libudev-dev libfreetype6-dev 
      libfontconfig-dev qtbase5-dev 
      libqt5x11extras5-dev libx264-dev libxcb-xinerama0-dev 
      libxcb-shm0-dev libjack-jackd2-dev libcurl4-openssl-dev 
      libavcodec-dev libqt5svg5 libavfilter-dev 
      libavdevice-dev libsdl2-dev ffmpeg
      qt5-default qtscript5-dev libssl-dev 
      qttools5-dev qttools5-dev-tools qtmultimedia5-dev 
      libqt5svg5-dev libqt5webkit5-dev  libasound2 
      libxmu-dev libxi-dev freeglut3-dev libasound2-dev 
      libjack-jackd2-dev libxrandr-dev libqt5xmlpatterns5-dev 
      libqt5xmlpatterns5 coccinelle parallel
      libapparmor-dev libcap-dev libseccomp-dev
      python3-dev python3-setuptools docbook2x
      libgnutls28-dev libselinux1-dev linux-libc-dev
      libtool autotools-dev 
      libio-socket-ssl-perl 
      libnet-ssleay-perl ca-certificates

    Now we need to create the file with the analyzer license (By default the file PVS-Studio.lic will be created in the directory ../.config/PVS-Studio). In doing so, you don't have to specify the license file in the analyzer running parameters, it will be caught up automatically):

    - pvs-studio-analyzer credentials $PVS_NAME $PVS_KEY

    Here PVS_NAME and PVS_KEY are the names of variables the values of which we specify in settings. They will store the PVS-Studio login and license key. To set their values, follow: Settings > CI/CD > Variables.

    Рисунок 23


    Build the project, using cmake:

    - cmake -DCMAKE_EXPORT_COMPILE_COMMANDS=On /builds/Stolyarrrov/obscheck/
    - make -j4

    After that, run the analyzer:

    - pvs-studio-analyzer analyze -o PVS-Studio.log 

    PVS-Studio.log will store the analysis results. The resulting file with the report is not intended for reading. In order to make it accessible for a human eye, we need the plog-converter utility. This program converts the analyzer's log into different formats. For easy reading, let's convert the log into the html format:

    - plog-converter -t html PVS-Studio.log -o PVS-Studio.html

    You can export the report using artifacts, but we'll change tack and send the file with analyzer results by the email using the sendemail utility:

    - sendemail -t $MAIL_TO
      -u "PVS-Studio report, commit:GITLAB_COMMIT" 
      -m "PVS-Studio report, commit:GITLAB_COMMIT" 
      -s $GMAIL_PORT
      -o tls=auto
      -f $MAIL_FROM 
      -xu $MAIL_FROM 
      -xp $MAIL_FROM_PASS 
      -a PVS-Studio.log PVS-Studio.html

    Full .gitlab-ci.yml:

    image: debian
    job:
      script:
        - apt-get update && apt-get -y install wget gnupg 
        - wget -O - https://files.viva64.com/etc/pubkey.txt | apt-key add - 
        - wget -O /etc/apt/sources.list.d/viva64.list 
          https://files.viva64.com/etc/viva64.list
        - apt-get update && apt-get -y install pvs-studio
          sendemail
        - apt-get -y install build-essential cmake  
          pkg-config libx11-dev libgl1-mesa-dev 
          libpulse-dev libxcomposite-dev 
          libxinerama-dev libv4l-dev libudev-dev libfreetype6-dev 
          libfontconfig-dev qtbase5-dev 
          libqt5x11extras5-dev libx264-dev libxcb-xinerama0-dev 
          libxcb-shm0-dev libjack-jackd2-dev libcurl4-openssl-dev 
          libavcodec-dev libqt5svg5 libavfilter-dev 
          libavdevice-dev libsdl2-dev ffmpeg
          qt5-default qtscript5-dev libssl-dev 
          qttools5-dev qttools5-dev-tools qtmultimedia5-dev 
          libqt5svg5-dev libqt5webkit5-dev  libasound2 
          libxmu-dev libxi-dev freeglut3-dev libasound2-dev 
          libjack-jackd2-dev libxrandr-dev libqt5xmlpatterns5-dev 
          libqt5xmlpatterns5 coccinelle parallel
          libapparmor-dev libcap-dev libseccomp-dev
          python3-dev python3-setuptools docbook2x
          libgnutls28-dev libselinux1-dev linux-libc-dev
          libtool autotools-dev 
          make libio-socket-ssl-perl 
          libnet-ssleay-perl ca-certificates
        - pvs-studio-analyzer credentials $PVS_NAME $PVS_KEY
        - cmake -DCMAKE_EXPORT_COMPILE_COMMANDS=On /builds/Stolyarrrov/obscheck/
        - make -j4
        - pvs-studio-analyzer analyze -o PVS-Studio.log 
        - plog-converter -t html PVS-Studio.log -o PVS-Studio.html
        - sendemail -t $MAIL_TO
          -u "PVS-Studio report, commit:GITLAB_COMMIT" 
          -m "PVS-Studio report, commit:GITLAB_COMMIT" 
          -s $GMAIL_PORT
          -o tls=auto
          -f $MAIL_FROM 
          -xu $MAIL_FROM 
          -xp $MAIL_FROM_PASS 
          -a PVS-Studio.log PVS-Studio.html

    Click commit changes. If we did everything right, we will see the output: This GitLab CI configuration is valid. To track progress, let's move to the tab CI/CD > Pipelines.

    Рисунок 5


    Click running. We'll see the virtual machine terminal window where our configuration file runs. After a while we get a message: job succeeded.

    Рисунок 29


    So it's time to open the html file with warnings sent by mail.

    Analysis results


    Let's take a look at some warnings from the report, revealing errors in the Open Broadcaster Software project so as to get the essence of static code analysis. Since the main purpose of the article is to describe principles of PVS-Studio and GitLab CI/CD interaction, only several nontrivial examples have been picked over. We are ready to give the authors of the project a temporary license and, if they wish, they are welcome to perform a more thorough project analysis. In addition, they can use one of the ways to get a free PVS-Studio license.

    Also everyone can get a trial key to explore the PVS-Studio capabilities and check their projects.

    So, let's pay attention to some examples of found errors in Open Broadcaster Software.

    Warning N1

    V547 Expression 'back_size' is allways true. circlebuf.h (138)

    struct circlebuf 
    {
      ....
      size_t capacity;
    };
    static inline void circlebuf_place(struct circlebuf *cb, 
          size_t position,....,const void *data, size_t size)
    {
      ....
      size_t data_end_pos;
      data_end_pos = position + size;
      if (data_end_pos > cb->capacity) 
      {
        size_t back_size = data_end_pos - cb->capacity;
        if (back_size)
        {
          memcpy((uint8_t *)cb->data + position, data, loop_size);
        }
      ....
    }

    The line if (data_end_pos > cb->capacity) is definitely worth taking a close look at. If the condition is true, the back_size variable, defined in the line below, will always be greater than zero, as here we deal with subtraction of the notoriously smaller value from the greater one. In the end, the condition, which is two lines below, will always be true. The redundant condition is not that harmless when it's followed by the code, changing data.

    Warnings N2, N3

    V629 Consider inspecting the '1 << indent' expression. Bit shifting of the 32-bit value with a subsequent expansion to the 64-bit type. profiler.c (610)

    static void profile_print_entry(uint64_t active, unsigned indent, ....)
    {
      ....
      active &= (1 << indent) - 1;
      ....
    }

    Confused operations over 32-bit and 64-bit types look suspicious here. First, the programmer evaluates the mask, using 32-bit types (expression (1 << indent) — 1), after that it implicitly expands into the 64-bit type in the expression active &= .... Most likely, when evaluating the mask, usage of 64-bit types was also required.

    Correct code version:

    active &= ((uint64_t)(1) << indent) - 1;

    Or:

    active &= (1ull << indent) - 1;

    By the way, the copy-paste version of this block is below, the analyzer also issued the warning for it: V629 Consider inspecting the '1 << indent' expression. Bit shifting of the 32-bit value with a subsequent expansion to the 64-bit type. profiler.c (719)

    Warning N4

    V761 Four identical blocks of text were found. 'obs-audio-controls.c' (353)

    static float get_true_peak(....)
    {
      ....
      peak = _mm_max_ps(peak, abs_ps(intrp_samples));
      SHIFT_RIGHT_2PS(new_work, work);
      VECTOR_MATRIX_CROSS_PS(intrp_samples, work, m3, m1, p1, p3);
    
      peak = _mm_max_ps(peak, abs_ps(intrp_samples));
      SHIFT_RIGHT_2PS(new_work, work);
      VECTOR_MATRIX_CROSS_PS(intrp_samples, work, m3, m1, p1, p3);
    
      peak = _mm_max_ps(peak, abs_ps(intrp_samples));
      SHIFT_RIGHT_2PS(new_work, work);
      VECTOR_MATRIX_CROSS_PS(intrp_samples, work, m3, m1, p1, p3);
    
      peak = _mm_max_ps(peak, abs_ps(intrp_samples));
      SHIFT_RIGHT_2PS(new_work, work);
      VECTOR_MATRIX_CROSS_PS(intrp_samples, work, m3, m1, p1, p3);
      ....
    }

    Four identical blocks. Almost in every case such code indicates a copy-paste error. Most likely, these functions must have been called with different arguments. Even if not, this code looks strange. A good solution would be to write the block only once and wrap it in a loop:

    for(size_t i = 0; i < 3; i++)
    {
      peak = _mm_max_ps(peak, abs_ps(intrp_samples));
      SHIFT_RIGHT_2PS(new_work, work);
      VECTOR_MATRIX_CROSS_PS(intrp_samples, work, m3, m1, p1, p3);
    }

    Warning N5

    V560 A part of conditional expression is always false: '!modifiers'. obs-hotkey.c (662)

    typedef struct obs_key_combination obs_key_combination_t;
    struct obs_key_combination 
    {
      uint32_t modifiers;
      obs_key_t key;
    };
    static inline void load_binding(....)
    {
      obs_key_combination_t combo = {0};
      uint32_t *modifiers = &combo.modifiers;
      load_modifier(modifiers, data, "shift", INTERACT_SHIFT_KEY);
      load_modifier(modifiers, data, "control", INTERACT_CONTROL_KEY);
      load_modifier(modifiers, data, "alt", INTERACT_ALT_KEY);
      load_modifier(modifiers, data, "command", INTERACT_COMMAND_KEY);
      if (!modifiers && (combo.key == OBS_KEY_NONE || 
                         combo.key >= OBS_KEY_LAST_VALUE))
      {
        ....
      }
      ....
    }

    Definition of the load_modifier function:

    static inline void load_modifier(uint32_t *modifiers, 
                                     obs_data_t *data,
                                     const char *name,
                                     uint32_t flag)
    {
      if (obs_data_get_bool(data, name))
        *modifiers |= flag;
    }

    As we can see, modifiers is a pointer, initialized by the address of the modifiers field of the combo structure. Since its value doesn't change until the check, it will remain non-null. Moreover, after the initialization before the check the pointer is used when calling the load_modifier function, where it gets dereferenced. Accordingly, the !modifiers check is pointless, as due to the && operator we'll always get false when evaluating the logical expression. I think the programmer wanted to check an integer value by the address that is stored in the modifiers pointer, but forgot to dereference this pointer.

    So it seems to me that the check should be as follows:

    if (!*modifiers && ....)
    Or like this:
    if (!combo.modifiers && ....)

    Warning N6

    V575 The potential null pointer is passed into 'strncpy' function. Inspect the first argument. Check lines: 2904, 2903. rtmp.c (2904)

    static int PublisherAuth(....)
    {
      ....
      ptr = malloc(r->Link.app.av_len + pubToken.av_len);
      strncpy(ptr, r->Link.app.av_val, r->Link.app.av_len);
      ....
    }

    Most often such code is unsafe, as it ignores that malloc can return a null pointer. If malloc returns NULL, undefined behavior will occur in this case, as the first argument of the strncpy function will have the NULL value.

    For more information on why it's important to check the return value of the malloc function, check out the relevant article.

    Warnings N7, N8, N9

    Guess which cases contain incorrect calculations:

    class OBSProjector : public OBSQTDisplay 
    {
      ....
      float sourceX, sourceY, ....;
      ....
    }
    ....
    void OBSProjector::OBSRenderMultiview(....)
    {
      OBSProjector *window = (OBSProjector *)data;
      ....
      auto calcBaseSource = [&](size_t i) 
      {
        switch (multiviewLayout) 
        {
        case MultiviewLayout::HORIZONTAL_TOP_24_SCENES:
          window->sourceX = (i % 6) * window->scenesCX;
          window->sourceY =
          window->pvwprgCY + (i / 6) * window->scenesCY;
          break;
        case MultiviewLayout::VERTICAL_LEFT_8_SCENES:
          window->sourceX = window->pvwprgCX;
          window->sourceY = (i / 2) * window->scenesCY;
          if (i % 2 != 0)
          {
            window->sourceX += window->scenesCX;
          }
          break;
        case MultiviewLayout::VERTICAL_RIGHT_8_SCENES:
          window->sourceX = 0;
          window->sourceY = (i / 2) * window->scenesCY;
          if (i % 2 != 0)
          {
            window->sourceX = window->scenesCX;
          }
          break;
        case MultiviewLayout::HORIZONTAL_BOTTOM_8_SCENES:
          if (i < 4) 
          {
            window->sourceX = (float(i) * window->scenesCX);
            window->sourceY = 0;
          } else 
          {
            window->sourceX =
           (float(i - 4) * window->scenesCX);
           window->sourceY = window->scenesCY;
          }
          break;
        default:// MultiviewLayout::HORIZONTAL_TOP_8_SCENES:
          if (i < 4) 
          {
            window->sourceX = (float(i) * window->scenesCX);
            window->sourceY = window->pvwprgCY;
          } else
          {
            window->sourceX =
            (float(i - 4) * window->scenesCX);
            window->sourceY =
            window->pvwprgCY + window->scenesCY;
          }
        }
      }
      ....
    }

    Analyzer warnings:

    • V636 The 'i / 6' expression was implicitly cast from 'size_t' type to 'float' type. Consider utilizing an explicit type cast to avoid the loss of a fractional part. An example: double A = (double)(X) / Y;. window-projector.cpp (330)
    • V636 The 'i / 2' expression was implicitly cast from 'size_t' type to 'float' type. Consider utilizing an explicit type cast to avoid the loss of a fractional part. An example: double A = (double)(X) / Y;. window-projector.cpp (334)
    • V636 The 'i / 2' expression was implicitly cast from 'size_t' type to 'float' type. Consider utilizing an explicit type cast to avoid the loss of a fractional part. An example: double A = (double)(X) / Y;. window-projector.cpp (340)

    Here's the right answer: in the ones, where i isn't cast to float. The analyzer shows us fragments with integer division. Such code might work not in the way the programmer had hoped.

    Conclusion


    As we can see, the PVS-Studio analyzer integration in your project on GitLab is a quite simple process. To do this, you just have to write only one configuration file and place it in your cloud repository. Due to the fact that GitLab has its own integrated virtual machine, we don't even need to spend a lot of time configuring the CI system. Code checking will let you find problems right after the build. This helps to eliminate problems at the stage where their complexity and cost are small as yet.
    PVS-Studio
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    Static Code Analysis for C, C++, C# and Java
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