Russian Internet Segment Architecture

    As many of our readers know, Qrator.Radar is constantly researching global BGP connectivity, as well as regional. Since the Internet stands for “Interconnected Networks,” to ensure the best possible quality and speed the interconnectivity of individual networks should be rich and diverse, with their growth motivated on a sound competitive basis.

    The fault-resistance of an internet connection in any given region or country is tied to the number of alternate routes between ASes. Though, as we stated before in our Internet Segments Reliability reports, some paths are obviously more critical compared to the others (for example, the paths to the Tier-1 transit ISPs or autonomous systems hosting authoritative DNS servers), which means that having as many reachable routes as possible is the only viable way to ensure adequate system scalability, stability and robustness.

    This time, we are going to have a closer look at the Russian Federation internet segment. There are reasons to keep an eye on that segment: according to the numbers provided by the RIPE database, there are 6183 autonomous systems in Russia, out of 88664 registered worldwide, which stands for 6.87% of total.

    This percentage puts Russia on a second place in the world, right after the USA (30.08% of registered ASes) and before Brazil, owning 6.34% of all autonomous systems. Effects of changes in the Russian connectivity could be observed across many other countries dependant on or adjacent to that connectivity, and ultimately by almost any ISP in the world.

    The overview


    image
    Diagram 1. AS distribution among countries, top 20

    In IPv4 ISPs from Russian Federation announce 33933 out of 774859 globally visible prefixes, which translates into 4.38% and puts Russian internet segment on the fifth place of such rating. Those, explicitly RU-announced prefixes cover 4.3*10^7 of unique IP-addresses out of 2.9*10^9 announced globally — 1.51%, 11th place.

    image
    Diagram 2. Network prefix number distribution among countries in IPv4, top 20

    In IPv6 ISPs from Russian Federation announce 1831 out of 65532 globally visible prefixes, which is 2.79% and place 7. Those prefixes cover 1.3*10^32 of unique IPv6 addresses out of 1.5*10^34 globally announced — 0.84%, 18th place.

    image
    Diagram 3. Network prefix number distribution in IPv6 among countries, top 20

    One of many ways to evaluate the country’s Internet connectivity and reliability is to rank the autonomous systems within the country by the number of prefixes announced. This method is vulnerable to route deaggregation, which is gradually balanced eventually by the excessive filtering of the de-aggregated prefixes in the ISP equipment due to the constant inevitable growth of route tables, which consumes memory.

    The individual scale


     
    IPv4 top 20
     
     
    IPv6 top 20  
    ASN
    AS Name
    Number of prefixes
    ASN
    AS Name
    Number of prefixes
    12389
    ROSTELECOM-AS
    2279
    31133
    MF-MGSM-AS
    56
    8402
    CORBINA-AS
    1283
    59504
    vpsville-AS
    51
    24955
    UBN-AS
    1197
    39811
    MTSNET-FAR-EAST-AS
    30
    3216
    SOVAM-AS
    930
    57378
    ROSTOV-AS
    26
    35807
    SkyNet-SPB-AS
    521
    12389
    ROSTELECOM-AS
    20
    44050
    PIN-AS
    366
    42385
    RIPN-RU
    20
    197695
    AS-REGRU
    315
    51604
    EKAT-AS
    19
    12772
    ENFORTA-AS
    291
    51819
    YAR-AS
    19
    41704
    OGS-AS
    235
    50543
    SARATOV-AS
    18
    57129
    RU-SERVERSGET-KRSK
    225
    52207
    TULA-AS
    18
    31133
    MF-MGSM-AS
    216
    206066
    TELEDOM-AS
    18
    49505
    SELECTEL
    213
    57026
    CHEB-AS
    18
    12714
    TI-AS
    195
    49037
    MGL-AS
    17
    15774
    TTK-RTL
    193
    41682
    ERTH-TMN-AS
    17
    12418
    QUANTUM
    191
    21191
    ASN-SEVERTTK
    16
    50340
    SELECTEL-MSK
    188
    41843
    ERTH-OMSK-AS
    15
    28840
    TATTELECOM-AS
    184
    42682
    ERTH-NNOV-AS
    15
    50113
    SuperServersDatacenter
    181
    50498
    LIPETSK-AS
    15
    31163
    MF-KAVKAZ-AS
    176
    50542
    VORONEZH-AS
    15
    21127
    ZSTTKAS
    162
    51645
    IRKUTSK-AS
    15
    Table 1. AS size by the prefix count

    We use the aggregated size of announced address space as a more reliable metric of comparable size for the autonomous system which reflects the autonomous systems potential and scalability limit. Such metric is not always relevant in IPv6 due to both RIPE NCC’s existing IPv6 address allocation policies and the redundancy in the protocol design. That is continuously balanced by the growth of IPv6 segment within the Russian internet segment and IPv6 BCP evolution.

     
    IPv4 top 20
     
     
    IPv6 top 20
     
    ASN
    AS Name
    Number of IP-addresses
    ASN
    AS Name
    Number of IP-addresses
    12389
    ROSTELECOM-AS
    8994816
    59504
    vpsville-AS
    2.76*10^30
    8402
    CORBINA-AS
    2228864
    49335
    NCONNECT-AS
    2.06*10^30
    12714
    TI-AS
    1206272
    8359
    MTS
    1.43*10^30
    8359
    MTS
    1162752
    50113
    SuperServersDatacenter
    1.35*10^30
    3216
    SOVAM-AS
    872608
    201211
    DRUGOYTEL-AS
    1.27*10^30
    31200
    NTK
    566272
    34241
    NCT-AS
    1.27*10^30
    42610
    NCNET-AS
    523264
    202984
    team-host
    1.27*10^30
    25513
    ASN-MGTS-USPD
    414464
    12695
    DINET-AS
    9.51*10^29
    39927
    Elight-AS
    351744
    206766
    INETTECH1-AS
    8.72*10^29
    20485
    TRANSTELECOM
    350720
    20485
    TRANSTELECOM
    7.92*10^29
    8342
    RTCOMM-AS
    350464
    12722
    RECONN
    7.92*10^29
    28840
    TATTELECOM-AS
    336896
    47764
    mailru-as
    7.92*10^29
    8369
    INTERSVYAZ-AS
    326912
    44050
    PIN-AS
    7.13*10^29
    28812
    JSCBIS-AS
    319488
    45027
    INETTECH-AS
    7.13*10^29
    12332
    PRIMORYE-AS
    303104
    3267
    RUNNET
    7.13*10^29
    20632
    PETERSTAR-AS
    284416
    34580
    UNITLINE_MSK_NET1
    7.13*10^29
    8615
    CNT-AS
    278528
    25341
    LINIYA-AS
    7.13*10^29
    35807
    SkyNet-SPB-AS
    275968
    60252
    OST-LLC-AS
    7.13*10^29
    3267
    RUNNET
    272640
    28884
    MR-SIB-MTSAS
    6.73*10^29
    41733
    ZTELECOM-AS
    266240
    42244
    ESERVER
    6.44*10^29
    Table 2. AS size by the aggregated IP count

    Both metrics — the number of announced prefixes and the aggregated size of announced address space — could be manipulated easily. Though we haven’t yet seen such behavior among the ASes in the scope of this research.

    The connectivity


    There are 3 major types of relation between autonomous systems:
    • Client: paying another AS for traffic transit;
    • Peering partner: an AS exchanging (both own or clients’) traffic for free;
    • Provider: receiving payments for traffic transit from the other AS.

    Usually, those types of relations are the same for all the peering relations between two ISPs, which proves itself right for the Russian Federation. However, it also happens sometimes that two ISPs have different relations in different regions, e.g. peer freely in Europe but have commercial relations in Asia.

     
    IPv4 top 20
     
     
    IPv6 top 20
     
    ASN
    AS Name
    Amount of customers within a region
    ASN
    AS Name
    Amount of customers within a region
    12389
    ROSTELECOM-AS
    818
    20485
    TRANSTELECOM
    94
    3216
    SOVAM-AS
    667
    12389
    ROSTELECOM-AS
    82
    20485
    TRANSTELECOM
    589
    31133
    MF-MGSM-AS
    77
    31133
    MF-MGSM-AS
    467
    20764
    RASCOM-AS
    72
    8359
    MTS
    313
    3216
    SOVAM-AS
    70
    20764
    RASCOM-AS
    223
    9049
    ERTH-TRANSIT-AS
    58
    9049
    ERTH-TRANSIT-AS
    220
    8359
    MTS
    51
    8732
    COMCOR-AS
    170
    29076
    CITYTELECOM-AS
    40
    2854
    ROSPRINT-AS
    152
    31500
    GLOBALNET-AS
    32
    29076
    CITYTELECOM-AS
    143
    3267
    RUNNET
    26
    29226
    MASTERTEL-AS
    143
    25478
    IHOME-AS
    22
    28917
    Fiord-AS
    96
    28917
    Fiord-AS
    21
    25159
    SONICDUO-AS
    94
    199599
    CIREX
    17
    3267
    RUNNET
    93
    29226
    MASTERTEL-AS
    13
    31500
    GLOBALNET-AS
    87
    8732
    COMCOR-AS
    12
    13094
    SFO-IX-AS
    80
    35000
    PROMETEY
    12
    31261
    GARS-AS
    80
    49063
    DTLN
    11
    25478
    IHOME-AS
    78
    42861
    FOTONTELECOM
    10
    12695
    DINET-AS
    76
    56534
    PIRIX-INET-AS
    9
    8641
    NAUKANET-AS
    73
    48858
    Milecom-as
    8
    Table 3. AS connectivity by the customer amount

    The number of clients for an AS showcases a role of an ISP as a direct upstream internet service provider for commercial customers.

     
    IPv4 top 20
     
     
    IPv6 top 20
     
    ASN
    AS Name
    Number of peering partners in a region
    ASN
    AS Name
    Number of peering partners in a region
    13238
    YANDEX
    638
    13238
    YANDEX
    266
    43267
    First_Line-SP_for_b2b_customers
    579
    9049
    ERTH-TRANSIT-AS
    201
    9049
    ERTH-TRANSIT-AS
    498
    60357
    MEGAGROUP-AS
    189
    201588
    MOSCONNECT-AS
    497
    41617
    SOLID-IFC
    177
    44020
    CLN-AS
    474
    41268
    LANTA-AS
    176
    41268
    LANTA-AS
    432
    3267
    RUNNET
    86
    15672
    TZTELECOM
    430
    31133
    MF-MGSM-AS
    78
    39442
    UNICO-AS
    424
    60764
    TK-Telecom
    74
    39087
    PAKT-AS
    422
    12389
    ROSTELECOM-AS
    52
    199805
    UGO-AS
    418
    42861
    FOTONTELECOM
    32
    200487
    FASTVPS
    417
    8359
    MTS
    28
    41691
    SUMTEL-AS-RIPE
    399
    20764
    RASCOM-AS
    26
    13094
    SFO-IX-AS
    388
    20485
    TRANSTELECOM
    17
    60357
    MEGAGROUP-AS
    368
    28917
    Fiord-AS
    16
    41617
    SOLID-IFC
    347
    31500
    GLOBALNET-AS
    14
    51674
    Mehanika-AS
    345
    60388
    TRANSNEFT-TELECOM-AS
    14
    49675
    SKBKONTUR-AS
    343
    42385
    RIPN-RU
    13
    35539
    INFOLINK-T-AS
    310
    3216
    SOVAM-AS
    12
    42861
    FOTONTELECOM
    303
    49063
    DTLN
    12
    25227
    ASN-AVANTEL-MSK
    301
    44843
    OBTEL-AS
    11
    Table 4. AS connectivity by the number of peering partners

    A large number of peers could significantly improve the region’s overall connectivity. Internet Exchanges are important, nevertheless not necessary — biggest ISPs usually don’t participate in regional exchange points (with some notable exceptions, such as NIXI) due to the very nature of their business.

    For a content provider, number of peers often indicates the volume of generated traffic — a stimulus of a free-of-charge exchange of heavy amounts of traffic is a motivation factor quite sufficient for most local ISPs to recognize a content provider as a good candidate for a peering connection. There are cases however when content providers don’t maintain a policy for excessive regional peering, which makes such an indicator not very precise in evaluating the size of content providers, i.e., the amount of traffic generated.

     
    IPv4 top 20
     
     
    IPv6 top 20
     
    ASN
    AS Name
    Customer cone size
    ASN
    AS Name
    Customer cone size
    3216
    SOVAM-AS
    3083
    31133
    MF-MGSM-AS
    335
    12389
    ROSTELECOM-AS
    2973
    20485
    TRANSTELECOM
    219
    20485
    TRANSTELECOM
    2587
    12389
    ROSTELECOM-AS
    205
    8732
    COMCOR-AS
    2463
    8732
    COMCOR-AS
    183
    31133
    MF-MGSM-AS
    2318
    20764
    RASCOM-AS
    166
    8359
    MTS
    2293
    3216
    SOVAM-AS
    143
    20764
    RASCOM-AS
    2251
    8359
    MTS
    143
    9049
    ERTH-TRANSIT-AS
    1407
    3267
    RUNNET
    88
    29076
    CITYTELECOM-AS
    860
    29076
    CITYTELECOM-AS
    84
    28917
    Fiord-AS
    683
    28917
    Fiord-AS
    70
    3267
    RUNNET
    664
    9049
    ERTH-TRANSIT-AS
    65
    25478
    IHOME-AS
    616
    31500
    GLOBALNET-AS
    54
    43727
    KVANT-TELECOM
    476
    25478
    IHOME-AS
    33
    31500
    GLOBALNET-AS
    459
    199599
    CIREX
    24
    57724
    DDOS-GUARD
    349
    43727
    KVANT-TELECOM
    20
    13094
    SFO-IX-AS
    294
    39134
    UNITEDNET
    20
    199599
    CIREX
    290
    15835
    MAP
    15
    29226
    MASTERTEL-AS
    227
    29226
    MASTERTEL-AS
    14
    201706
    AS-SERVICEPIPE
    208
    35000
    PROMETEY
    14
    8641
    NAUKANET-AS
    169
    49063
    DTLN
    13
    Table 5. AS connectivity by the customer cone size

    The customer cone is a set of all ASes that are directly or indirectly dependent on given autonomous systems. Economically, every AS in the customer cone is a paying client, either directly or indirectly. On a higher level, the number of ASes within a given customer cone, as well as the number of direct customers, is the crucial connectivity factor.

    Finally, we have got one more table, representing connectivity to the core of the Internet. When we know the customer cone size for each AS in the region, we could calculate how far they are from the region’ biggest transit ISPs. The lower the number — the better connectivity is. “1” stands for all visible routes there are the direct connection with the regional core available.

     
    IPv4 top 20
     
     
    IPv6 top 20
     
    ASN
    AS Name
    Connectivity rating
    ASN
    AS Name
    Connectivity rating
    8997
    ASN-SPBNIT
    1.0
    21109
    CONTACT-AS
    1.0
    47764
    mailru-as
    1.0
    31133
    MF-MGSM-AS
    1.0
    42448
    ERA-AS
    1.0
    20485
    TRANSTELECOM
    1.0
    13094
    SFO-IX-AS
    1.0
    47541
    VKONTAKTE-SPB-AS
    1.0
    47541
    VKONTAKTE-SPB-AS
    1.07
    13238
    YANDEX
    1.05
    13238
    YANDEX
    1.1
    8470
    MAcomnet
    1.17
    3216
    SOVAM-AS
    1.11
    12389
    ROSTELECOM-AS
    1.19
    48061
    GPM-TECH-AS
    1.11
    41722
    MIRAN-AS
    1.2
    31133
    MF-MGSM-AS
    1.11
    8359
    MTS
    1.22
    8359
    MTS
    1.12
    60879
    SYSTEMPROJECTS-AS
    1.25
    41268
    LANTA-AS
    1.13
    41268
    LANTA-AS
    1.25
    9049
    ERTH-TRANSIT-AS
    1.16
    44020
    CLN-AS
    1.25
    20485
    TRANSTELECOM
    1.18
    29226
    MASTERTEL-AS
    1.25
    29076
    CITYTELECOM-AS
    1.18
    44943
    RAMNET-AS
    1.25
    12389
    ROSTELECOM-AS
    1.23
    12714
    TI-AS
    1.25
    57629
    IVI-RU
    1.25
    47764
    mailru-as
    1.25
    48297
    DOORHAN
    1.25
    44267
    IESV
    1.25
    42632
    MNOGOBYTE-AS
    1.25
    203730
    SVIAZINVESTREGION
    1.25
    44020
    CLN-AS
    1.25
    3216
    SOVAM-AS
    1.25
    12668
    MIRALOGIC-AS
    1.25
    24739
    SEVEREN-TELECOM
    1.29
    Table 6. AS connectivity by the distance to the largest regional transit ISPs

    What efforts could be taken in order to improve the overall connectivity and in turn stability, reliability and security of any country and Russia in particular? Here are just a few:

    • Tax exemption and other benefits to local IX operators;
    • Free or cheap land servitude for fiber optic communication lines construction;
    • Trainings for technical staff in faraway regions, including workshops and tutorials on BGP best practices. RIPE NCC provides some of those for free, check the list.


    Data presented in this article is an excerpt from the research conducted by Qrator Labs about the world’s second-largest regional Internet segment of Russia (colloquially recognized as “Runet”), based on open data collected and analyzed by the Radar project. The research in full is planned to be presented at the proposed workshop during the 10th Asia Pacific Regional Internet Governance Forum in July. Any feedback as well as requests for similar research for other countries and regions are welcome and could be sent to the e-mail: mail@qrator.net
    Qrator Labs
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    Comments 1

      0
      Nobody cares about russian internet besides russians, lol

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