• Russian Internet Segment Architecture

      As many of our readers know, Qrator.Radar is constantly researching global BGP connectivity, as well as regional. Since the Internet stands for “Interconnected Networks,” to ensure the best possible quality and speed the interconnectivity of individual networks should be rich and diverse, with their growth motivated on a sound competitive basis.

      The fault-resistance of an internet connection in any given region or country is tied to the number of alternate routes between ASes. Though, as we stated before in our Internet Segments Reliability reports, some paths are obviously more critical compared to the others (for example, the paths to the Tier-1 transit ISPs or autonomous systems hosting authoritative DNS servers), which means that having as many reachable routes as possible is the only viable way to ensure adequate system scalability, stability and robustness.

      This time, we are going to have a closer look at the Russian Federation internet segment. There are reasons to keep an eye on that segment: according to the numbers provided by the RIPE database, there are 6183 autonomous systems in Russia, out of 88664 registered worldwide, which stands for 6.87% of total.

      This percentage puts Russia on a second place in the world, right after the USA (30.08% of registered ASes) and before Brazil, owning 6.34% of all autonomous systems. Effects of changes in the Russian connectivity could be observed across many other countries dependant on or adjacent to that connectivity, and ultimately by almost any ISP in the world.
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    • DoT for RPZ distribution

        Just a few months ago there were a lot of buzz because IETF in expedited time frame (about one year) accepted DNS over HTTPS (DoH) as a standard (RFC-8484). The discussions about that are still going on because of its controversy. My personal opinion is that DoH is good for personal privacy (if you know how to use it and trust your DNS provider) but it is a security risk for enterprises. DNS over TLS (DoT) is a better alternative for enterprise customers only because it uses a well-defined TCP port but for personal privacy it is not good because of the same reason (easy to block).
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      • Eliminating opportunities for traffic hijacking


          Beautiful scheme for BGP connection to Qrator filtering network

          A little historical overview


          • BGP hijacks — when an ISP originates an advertisement of address space that does not belong to it;
          • BGP route leaks — when an ISP advertises prefixes received from one provider or peer to another provider or peer.

          This week it has been 11 years since the memorable YouTube BGP incident, provoked by the global propagation of a more specific prefix announce, originated by the Pakistan Telecom, leading to an almost 2 hour in duration traffic disruption in the form of redirecting traffic from legitimate path to the bogus one. We could guess if that event was intentional, and even a correct answer wouldn’t help us completely prevent such incidents from happening today. While you read this, a route leak or a hijack is spreading over the networks. Why? Because BGP is not easy, and configuring a correct and secure setup is even harder (yet).

          In these eleven years, BGP hijacking became quite damaging attack vector due to the BGP emplacement in the architecture of modern internet. Thanks to BGP, routers not only acquire peer information, and therefore all the Internet routes — they are able of calculating the best path for traffic to its destination through many intermediate (transit) networks, each representing an individual AS. A single AS is just a group of IPv4 and/or IPv6 networks operating under a single external routing policy.
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        • Flightradar24 — how it works?

            I’m going to hazard a guess and say that everyone whose friends or family have ever flown on a plane, have used Flightradar24 — a free and convenient service for tracking flights in real time.



            But, if my friends are any indication, very few people know that the service is community-driven and is supported by a group of enthusiasts gathering and sending data. Even fewer people know that anyone can join the project — including you.

            Let’s see how Flightradar and similar other services works.
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          • Internet Issues & Availability Report 2018–2019

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              While working on the annual report this year we have decided to avoid retelling the news headlines of the previous year and, though it is almost impossible to ignore memories absolutely, we want to share with you the result of a clear thought and a strategic view to the point where we all are going to arrive in the nearest time — the present.

              Leaving introduction words behind, here are our key findings:

              • Average DDoS attack duration dropped to 2.5 hours;
              • During 2018, the capability appeared for attacks at hundreds of gigabits-per-second within a country or region, bringing us to the verge of “quantum theory of bandwidth relativity”;
              • The frequency of DDoS attacks continues to grow;
              • The continuing growth of HTTPS-enabled (SSL) attacks;
              • PC is dead: most of the legitimate traffic today comes from smartphones, which is a challenge for DDoS actors today and would be the next challenge for DDoS mitigation companies;
              • BGP finally became an attack vector, 2 years later than we expected;
              • DNS manipulation has become the most damaging attack vector;
              • Other new amplification vectors are possible, like memcached & CoAP;
              • There are no more “safe industries” that are invulnerable to cyberattacks of any kind.

              In this article we have tried to cherry-pick all the most interesting parts of our report, though if you would like read the full version in English, the PDF is available.
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