# Stonehenge. The secrets of megaliths

A version how people transported megaliths in Stonehenge.

They started their work in summer.

They prepared road for transportation. They needed a clean and glade road without stones and other irregularities. (No.4 on picture)
Perhaps they cut the topsoil and covered the road with clay. (No.3 on the picture)
On each side they made curbs ( 5-10 cm). (No.2 on the picture)
They used clay because they wanted to hold water inside the road.
In autumn rains filled road with water. It looked like a big puddle. (No.5 on the picture)

In winter road froze. Then they got a smooth ice skating rink slightly wider than a megalith.

Megaliths (No.11) were transported in winter.

Mechanism and vehicles for transportation were prepared in summer.

Mechanism consisted of three parts.

First part had two winches. They located on the right and left side of the ice road. In summer people dug many pits along the entire road. (No.6 on the picture)

The winch consisted of a vertical log (No.7) and 4-6 levers (length 2-3m) (No.8)

People tied a rope (No.15) around the log. Another end of the rope was tied to logs under the megalith. (No.10)

With rotating winch handle people pulled the megalith forward. If handle was 2m, diameter of winch axis was 0,2m, then man's effort increased 20 times.

Thereby, two winches (every one with 6 levers) could increase men‘s (F1) effort in 480 times (F2) if every handle was pushed by two people (No.9).

Wherein people walked through the snow (No.12), they moved megalith on the ice (No.5).

Every time when megalith reached the winch, they put the winch into a new hole and repeated the whole (No.6) process.

If the megalith weighted 40000 kg, than by the law of mechanics (the law of block) every man putting the effort necessary to move 100 kg (F3), shifted 2000kg (F4).

Posteriorly megalith was pushed through a lever (No.13). The part of the lever (shoulder), which is moved by people, is equal to 5.

Every side of the road has one lever arm. Every lever arm was pushed by 5 or more people. The force of every man increased fivefold by lever. Thus 10 people could move even 25000kg.

Lever axis (No.14) could be a log (No.7) which was put in a pit (No.6) vertically or climbing boots for walking on ice consisting of wooden pegs (consist of a bundle of sticks that work as mountaineering shoes).

In this way a small tribe with This tool could easily move the megalith which weight 48000 kg.

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This method possibly could work in Siberia. However the weather in the area of Stonehenge is mild and on average does not reach 0°C. If we use this method in a bit colder place, the ice will melt under the rollers (10). This effect is called regelation. In usual conditions the effect is invisible, but here we are moving 40 tons on a few rollers. They will probably form ridges in the ice, and it will be very difficult to drag the slab along such a road. As we know, braking cars create such ridges in asphalt at intersections — and their tires are quite soft.

Another issue here is that the method is essentially using wheels. It is not known whether creators of Stonehenge knew wheels. But if they did, perhaps they could transport the stone on a large number of short logs. We know (?) that Egyptians did not have a wheel, that's why people proposed so many scenarios with ramps, slaves and ropes.

This proposal also does not cover one very important issue that would become a showstopper even if the monolith is mounted on ideal wheels. That problem is gravity. Earth is not flat, and anyone who wants to raise the load has to perform work. If the weight is 40 tons, it will be difficult to lift the stone even by a few centimeters. And they have to do it repeatedly. The source of the stones is unclear, but the stones had to be moved. A great many lifts of those stones would have to be performed. I would begin at the quarry, as that is the most challenging place.

Given that remnants of ancient megalithic construction are found on all continents, except Antarctica, it would make sense to look for a solution that covers all similar cases.
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Thanks for the comment.
5000 years ago (3000 BC) winter in England was much colder.
This method does not use wheels and rollers. Megalith rides on a sled.
But ice thickness is a problem.
But if the ice is on top of small stones…
And the earth is frozen…
In order to raise the megalith, you can use the lever.
Megaliths in the south of Europe are smaller (easier).