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Mēris botnet, climbing to the record

Яндекс corporate blog Qrator Labs corporate blog Information Security *IT Infrastructure *Network technologies *

Introduction

For the last five years, there have virtually been almost no global-scale application-layer attacks.

During this period, the industry has learned how to cope with the high bandwidth network layer attacks, including amplification-based ones. It does not mean that botnets are now harmless.

End of June 2021, Qrator Labs started to see signs of a new assaulting force on the Internet – a botnet of a new kind. That is a joint research we conducted together with Yandex to elaborate on the specifics of the DDoS attacks enabler emerging in almost real-time.

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Total votes 28: ↑28 and ↓0 +28
Views 13K
Comments 0

Private party protocol: how to distinguish friends and foes using cryptographic tools

Information Security *Cryptography *Network technologies *
Tutorial

ENCRY presents a new interactive identification protocol aimed at controlling the access of selected users to various resources.

Close your eyes and imagine Nice, a luxurious estate whose extravagant owner throws epic parties with jazz and fireworks every weekend.

To attend such a party is a lot of the elite. Invitations are sent out in advance, and guests do not know the names of other invited persons. The owner of the estate, the mysterious Jay Gatsby, an eager luxury-lover, values ​​privacy so much that he is not ready to entrust the list of invitees to anyone, not even his buttress. Moreover, the owner of the estate would like the guests not to reveal their names when entering the property. After all, there may be the mayor of the city, or the chief prosecutor among them, and they would like to keep their visit secret. Unfortunately, the owner of the estate himself is so busy that he cannot independently check each guest at the entrance, especially since there are several access roads to his house. How could he solve this problem?

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Total votes 2: ↑2 and ↓0 +2
Views 616
Comments 0

Network Infrastructure — how is it seen by hyperscalers

IT Infrastructure *Network technologies *
Sandbox

Network architecture at hyperscalers is a subject to constant innovation and is ever evolving to meet the demand. Network operators are constantly experimenting with solutions and finding new ways to keep it reliable and cost effective. Hyperscalers are periodically publishing their findings and innovations in a variety of scientific and technical groups.

The purpose of this article is to summarize the information about how hyperscalers design and manage networks. The goal here is to help connecting the dots, dissect and digest the data from a variety of sources including my personal experience working with hyperscalers.

DISCLAIMER: All information in this article is acquired from public resources. This article contains my own opinion which might not match and does not represent the opinion of my employer.

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Total votes 4: ↑4 and ↓0 +4
Views 969
Comments 1

Yggdrasil Network: Light in the Dark Depths of Mesh, or the Internet of the Future

ITSOFT corporate blog Decentralized networks Network technologies *Mesh networks *
Translation

Smoothly the era of mesh-networks is upon us. At the very least, the term is appearing more and more often in the information sphere. What attracts the attention of networkers? Let's try to understand the question, taking Yggdrasil network as an example as one of the most promising prototypes. The article is intended for a wide range of readers.

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Total votes 1: ↑1 and ↓0 +1
Views 1.4K
Comments 0

Q1 2021 DDoS attacks and BGP incidents

Qrator Labs corporate blog Information Security *IT Infrastructure *Network technologies *Research and forecasts in IT

The year 2021 started on such a high note for Qrator Labs: on January 19, our company celebrated its 10th anniversary. Shortly after, in February, our network mitigated quite an impressive 750 Gbps DDoS attack based on old and well known DNS amplification. Furthermore, there is a constant flow of BGP incidents; some are becoming global routing anomalies. We started reporting in our newly made Twitter account for Qrator.Radar.

Nevertheless, with the first quarter of the year being over, we can take a closer look at DDoS attacks statistics and BGP incidents for January - March 2021.

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Total votes 15: ↑15 and ↓0 +15
Views 837
Comments 0

2020 Network Security and Availability Report

Qrator Labs corporate blog Information Security *IT Infrastructure *Network technologies *

By the beginning of 2021, Qrator Labs filtering network expands to 14 scrubbing centers and a total of 3 Tbps filtering bandwidth capacity, with the San Paolo scrubbing facility fully operational in early 2021;

New partner services fully integrated into Qrator Labs infrastructure and customer dashboard throughout 2020: SolidWall WAF and RuGeeks CDN;

Upgraded filtering logic allows Qrator Labs to serve even bigger infrastructures with full-scale cybersecurity protection and DDoS attacks mitigation;

The newest AMD processors are now widely used by Qrator Labs in packet processing.

DDoS attacks were on the rise during 2020, with the most relentless attacks described as short and overwhelmingly intensive.

However, BGP incidents were an area where it was evident that some change was and still is needed, as there was a significant amount of devastating hijacks and route leaks.

In 2020, we began providing our services in Singapore under a new partnership and opened a new scrubbing center in Dubai, where our fully functioning branch is staffed by the best professionals to serve local customers.

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Total votes 17: ↑17 and ↓0 +17
Views 495
Comments 0

Top 7 Technology Trends to Look out for in 2021

Information Security *Network technologies *Research and forecasts in IT Artificial Intelligence IOT
Sandbox

Technology is as adaptable and compatible as mankind; it finds its way through problems and situations. 2020 was one such package of uncertain events that forced businesses to adapt to digital transformation, even to an extent where many companies started to consider the remote work culture to be a beneficiary long-term model. Technological advancements like Hyper automation, AI Security, and Distributed cloud showed how any people-centric idea could rule the digital era. The past year clearly showed the boundless possibilities through which technology can survive or reinvent itself. With all those learnings let's deep-dive and focus on some of the top technology trends to watch out for in 2021.

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Rating 0
Views 2.8K
Comments 1

Implementing Offline traceroute Tool Using Python

Python *Network technologies *
Translation

Hey everyone! This post was born from a question asked by an IT forum member. The summary of the question looked as follows:


  • There is a set of text files containing routing tables collected from various network devices.
  • Each file represents one device.
  • Device platforms and routing table formats may vary.
  • It is required to analyze a routing path from any device to an arbitrary subnet or host on-demand.
  • Resulting output should contain a list of routing table entries that are used for the routing to the given destination on each hop.

The one who asked a question worked as a TAC engineer. It is often that they collect or receive from the customers some text 'snapshots' of the network state for further offline analysis while troubleshooting the issues. Some automation could really save a lot of time.


I found this task interesting and also applicable to my own needs, so I decided to write a Proof-of-Concept implementation in Python 3 for Cisco IOS, IOS-XE, and ASA routing table format.


In this article, I’ll try to reconstruct the resulting script development process and my considerations behind each step.


Let’s get started.

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Rating 0
Views 1.7K
Comments 0

Visualizing Network Topologies: Zero to Hero in Two Days

Python *Cisco *Network technologies *
Translation

Hey everyone! This is a follow-up article on a local Cisco Russia DevNet Marathon online event I attended in May 2020. It was a series of educational webinars on network automation followed by daily challenges based on the discussed topics.
On a final day, the participants were challenged to automate a topology analysis and visualization of an arbitrary network segment and, optionally, track and visualize the changes.


The task was definitely not trivial and not widely covered in public blog posts. In this article, I would like to break down my own solution that finally took first place and describe the selected toolset and considerations.

Let's get started.


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Total votes 2: ↑2 and ↓0 +2
Views 10K
Comments 0

Linux Switchdev the Mellanox way

Qrator Labs corporate blog System administration *Network technologies *Network hardware
This is a transcription of a talk that was presented at CSNOG 2020 — video is at the end of the page



Greetings! My name is Alexander Zubkov. I work at Qrator Labs, where we protect our customers against DDoS attacks and provide BGP analytics.

We started using Mellanox switches around 2 or 3 years ago. At the time we got acquainted with Switchdev in Linux and today I want to share with you our experience.
Total votes 18: ↑18 and ↓0 +18
Views 1.3K
Comments 0

The 2020 National Internet Segment Reliability Research

Qrator Labs corporate blog Information Security *IT Infrastructure *Network technologies *IPv6 *

The National Internet Segment Reliability Research explains how the outage of a single Autonomous System might affect the connectivity of the impacted region with the rest of the world. Most of the time, the most critical AS in the region is the dominant ISP on the market, but not always.

As the number of alternate routes between AS’s increases (and do not forget that the Internet stands for “interconnected network” — and each network is an AS), so does the fault-tolerance and stability of the Internet across the globe. Although some paths are from the beginning more important than others, establishing as many alternate routes as possible is the only viable way to ensure an adequately robust network.

The global connectivity of any given AS, regardless of whether it is an international giant or regional player, depends on the quantity and quality of its path to Tier-1 ISPs.

Usually, Tier-1 implies an international company offering global IP transit service over connections with other Tier-1 providers. Nevertheless, there is no guarantee that such connectivity will be maintained all the time. For many ISPs at all “tiers”, losing connection to just one Tier-1 peer would likely render them unreachable from some parts of the world.
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Total votes 26: ↑26 and ↓0 +26
Views 8.7K
Comments 0

How Can AI & Data Science Help to Fight the Coronavirus?

Network technologies *Cloud services Artificial Intelligence
Sandbox
image

Do you know AI can save us from a worldwide pandemic?

Yeah, it's true. Our global researchers have touted these two buzzing technologies can provide a substantial social benefit to this worldwide health crisis.

Before I begin, I would like to take this moment to say THANK YOU to all our COVID-19 Warriors standing on the frontline and working day and night for us. We can’t thank them enough. Our healthcare staff, police, scientist, security guards, and sweepers. Their contribution is overwhelming and commendable ?

Discovering a drug for any medicine demands the joint efforts of the world's brightest minds. The process is notoriously long, complicated, and expensive. And that's how health experts are involved in searching COVID-19 medicine. In the midst of such a crisis, artificial intelligence solutions are offering a new hope that a cure might appear faster with it.
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Total votes 3: ↑3 and ↓0 +3
Views 925
Comments 0

Looking back at 3 months of the global traffic shapeshifting

Qrator Labs corporate blog Information Security *IT Infrastructure *Network technologies *
image
There would be no TL;DR in this article, sorry.

Those have been three months that genuinely changed the world. An entire lifeline passed from February, 1, when the coronavirus pandemics just started to spread outside of China and European countries were about to react, to April, 30, when nations were locked down in quarantine measures almost all over the entire world. We want to take a look at the repercussions, cyclic nature of the reaction and, of course, provide DDoS attacks and BGP incidents overview on a timeframe of three months.

In general, there seems to be an objective pattern in almost every country’s shift into the quarantine lockdown.
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Total votes 27: ↑27 and ↓0 +27
Views 2.8K
Comments 0

This is how you deal with route leaks

Qrator Labs corporate blog Information Security *Network technologies *
That, we must say, is the unique story so far.

Here’s the beginning: for approximately an hour, starting at 19:28 UTC on April 1, 2020, the largest Russian ISP — Rostelecom (AS12389) — was announcing prefixes belonging to prominent internet players: Akamai, Cloudflare, Hetzner, Digital Ocean, Amazon AWS, and other famous names.

Before the issue was resolved, paths between the largest cloud networks were somewhat disrupted — the Internet blinked. The route leak was distributed quite well through Rascom (AS20764), then Cogent (AS174) and in a couple of minutes through Level3 (AS3356) to the world. The issue suddenly became bad enough that it saturated the route decision-making process for a few Tier-1 ISPs.

It looked like this:

image

With that:

image
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Total votes 22: ↑22 and ↓0 +22
Views 2.1K
Comments 0

Datacenter TCP explained

Cloud computing *Network technologies *Network hardware
Modern networking contains a number of improvements over the basic TCP/IP stack. One of this, particularly useful inside datacenter was developed by Microsoft Research in 2010 and called, surprisingly, DataCenter TCP (DCTCP).

DCTCP is a set of modification to TCP, targeting to fulfill two properties:
1. Improve latency for latency-sensitive small messages
2. Not to decrease the throughput for throughput-sensitive big flows
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Total votes 6: ↑6 and ↓0 +6
Views 2K
Comments 0

PKI Decentralization: Proposed Approaches to Security Improvement

Decentralized networks Information Security *Cryptography *Network technologies *
The practical means of applying public key cryptography to secure network communications were introduced by Loren Kohnfelder in his MIT S.B. (BSCSE) thesis written in May 1978. After that, the public key infrastructure (PKI) has gone through several iterations of changes and updates, but it still preserves its traditional methodology. PKI requires implicit trust from a single entity or entities chain called a certificate authority (CA). This approach has led to a breakdown in confidence. However, through the years, having one root entity to control the way public key certificates are issued has shown that it can cause major complications with transparency and security.

In this article, we will once again dive deeper into the problems of PKI and consider the solutions being developed that can overcome existing shortcomings.
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Total votes 3: ↑3 and ↓0 +3
Views 1.5K
Comments 0

DPKI: Addressing the Disadvantages of Centralized PKI by Means of Blockchain

ENCRY corporate blog Decentralized networks Information Security *Cryptography *Network technologies *


Digital certificates are one of the most commonly known auxiliary tools that help protect data across public networks. However, the key disadvantage of this technology is also commonly known: users are forced to implicitly trust certification authorities which issue digital certificates. Andrey Chmora, Technology and Innovations Director at ENCRY, suggested a new approach for building a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) to eliminate the existing disadvantages using the distributed ledger (blockchain) technology.
Let's begin with the basics.
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Total votes 4: ↑3 and ↓1 +2
Views 1.7K
Comments 0

2019 National Internet Segments Reliability Research & Report

Qrator Labs corporate blog Decentralized networks IT Infrastructure *Network technologies *IPv6 *


This report explains how the outage of a single AS can affect the connectivity of the impacted region with the rest of the world, especially when it is the dominant ISP on the market. Internet connectivity at the network level is driven by interaction between autonomous systems (AS’s). As the number of alternate routes between AS’s increases, so goes the fault-resistance and stability of the internet across the network. Although some paths inevitably become more important than others, establishing as many alternate routes as possible is the only viable way to ensure an adequately robust system.

The global connectivity of any AS, regardless of whether it is a minor provider or an international giant, depends on the quantity and quality of its paths to Tier-1 ISPs. Usually, Tier-1 implies an international company offering global IP transit service over connections to other Tier-1 providers. But there is no guarantee that such connectivity will be maintained. Only the market can motivate them to peer with other Tier-1’s to deliver the highest quality service. Is that enough? We explore this question in the IPv6 section below. For many ISPs at all levels, losing connection to just one Tier-1 peer would likely render them unreachable in some parts of the world.

Measuring Internet Reliability


Let’s examine a case where an AS experiences significant network degradation. We want to answer the following question: “How many AS’s in the region would lose connectivity with Tier-1 operators and their global availability along with it?”
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Total votes 37: ↑36 and ↓1 +35
Views 3K
Comments 2

Qrator filtering network configuration delivery system

Qrator Labs corporate blog System Analysis and Design *IT Infrastructure *Network technologies *Distributed systems *


TL;DR: Client-server architecture of our internal configuration management tool, QControl.
At its basement, there’s a two-layered transport protocol working with gzip-compressed messages without decompression between endpoints. Distributed routers and endpoints receive the configuration updates, and the protocol itself makes it possible to install intermediary localized relays. It is based on a differential backup (“recent-stable,” explained further) design and employs JMESpath query language and Jinja templating for configuration rendering.

Qrator Labs operates on and maintains a globally distributed mitigation network. Our network is anycast, based on announcing our subnets via BGP. Being a BGP anycast network physically located in several regions across the Earth makes it possible for us to process and filter illegitimate traffic closer to the Internet backbone — Tier-1 operators.

On the other hand, being a geographically distributed network bears its difficulties. Communication between the network points-of-presence (PoP) is essential for a security provider to have a coherent configuration for all network nodes and update it in a timely and cohesive manner. So to provide the best possible service for customers, we had to find a way to synchronize the configuration data between different continents reliably.
In the beginning, there was the Word… which quickly became communication protocol in need of an upgrade.
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Total votes 24: ↑23 and ↓1 +22
Views 921
Comments 0
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