• External Interrupts in the x86 system. Part 3. Interrupt routing setup in a chipset, with the example of coreboot

    • Tutorial

    We continue to investigate external device interrupt routing setup in the x86 system.

    In Part 1 (Interrupt controller evolution) we looked at the theory behind interrupt controllers and all the necessary terminology. In Part 2 (Linux kernel boot options) we looked at how in practice the OS chooses between different interrupt controllers. In this part we will investigate how the BIOS sets IRQ to the interrupt controllers routing in a chipset.

    None of the modern BIOS developer companies (AwardBIOS/AMIBIOS/Insyde) open their source code. But luсkily there is coreboot — a project aimed at replacing proprietary BIOS with free firmware code. In its source code we'll see what is needed to setup the interrupt routing in a chipset.

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  • Approach to calculating individual risk in COVID-19

      In February 2020, when the disease came to Europe, it became apparent to me that our timid hopes that the epidemics would subside and be finally buried in the China's soil were ruined. It was already evident from the Chinese statistics that the virus is lethal enough to scare and mild enough to pass unnoticed in many cases and, thus, to guarantee its effective dissemination. The question was when it reaches each next country.

      Another question was the individual risks, especially the risk of lethal outcome if one contracts the virus. The average figure of around 5% was circulated by late January and early February. It was known that males were more susceptible to fatal outcomes. By February, it was also evident that the virus doesn't lead to death only in the elderly — the middle age was significantly affected, as well.

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    • About embedded again: searching for bugs in the Embox project

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        Embox is a cross-platform, multi-tasking real-time operating system for embedded systems. It is designed to work with limited computing resources and allows you to run Linux-based applications on microcontrollers without using Linux itself. Certainly, the same as other applications, Embox couldn't escape from bugs. This article is devoted to the analysis of errors found in the code of the Embox project.
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      • A Second Check of Newton Game Dynamics with PVS-Studio

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          Some time ago, somewhere on the Internet, I stumbled upon a physics engine called Newton Game Dynamics. Knowing that engine projects are usually big and complex, I decided to check its code with PVS-Studio for any interesting defects. I was especially enthusiastic about this one because my co-worker Andrey Karpov already checked it in 2014 and a second check would be a good opportunity to demonstrate our analyzer's evolution over the past six years. As of this writing, the latest version of Newton Game Dynamics is dated February 27, 2020, which means it has been actively developing for the past six years too. So, hopefully, this article will be interesting not only to us but to the engine's developers as well – and for them it's a chance to fix some bugs and improve their code.
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        • Checking the GCC 10 Compiler with PVS-Studio

            PVS-Studo vs GCC 10

            The GCC compiler is written with copious use of macros. Another check of the GCC code using PVS-Studio once again confirms the opinion of our team that macros are evil in the flesh. Not only does the static analyzer struggle with reviewing such code, but also a developer. GCC developers are certainly used to the project and are well versed in it. Nonetheless, it is very difficult to understand something on the third hand. Actually, due to macros, it was not possible to fully perform code checking. However, the PVS-Studio analyzer, as always, showed that it can find errors even in compilers.
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          • Checking the Code of Zephyr Operating System

              PVS-Studio and Zephyr

              Some time ago we announced PVS-Studio's new feature that enabled it to integrate into PlatformIO. Naturally, our team kept in touch with the PlatformIO team while working on that feature, and they suggested that we check the real-time operating system Zephyr to see if we could find any interesting bugs in its code. We thought it was a good idea, and so here's this article about the check results.
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            • AdBlock has stolen the banner, but banners are not teeth — they will be back

            • SLAE — SecurityTube Linux Assembly Exam

                SecurityTube Linux Assembly Exam (SLAE) — is a final part of course:
                This course focuses on teaching the basics of 32-bit assembly language for the Intel Architecture (IA-32) family of processors on the Linux platform and applying it to Infosec and can be useful for security engineers, penetrations testers and everyone who wants to understand how to write simple shellcodes.
                This blog post have been created for completing requirements of the Security Tube Linux Assembly Expert certification.
                Exam consists of 7 tasks:
                1. TCP Bind Shell
                2. Reverse TCP Shell
                3. Egghunter
                4. Custom encoder
                5. Analysis of 3 msfvenom generated shellcodes with GDB/ndisasm/libemu
                6. Modifying 3 shellcodes from shell-storm
                7. Creating custom encryptor
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              • Top 10 Bugs Found in C++ Projects in 2019

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                  Another year is drawing to an end, and it's a perfect time to make yourself a cup of coffee and reread the reviews of bugs collected across open-source projects over this year. This would take quite a while, of course, so we prepared this article to make it easier for you. Today we'll be recalling the most interesting dark spots that we came across in open-source C/C++ projects in 2019.
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                • Checking the Ark Compiler Recently Made Open-Source by Huawei

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                    During the summer of 2019, Huawei gave a series of presentations announcing the Ark Compiler technology. The company claims that this open-source project will help developers make the Android system and third-party software much more fluent and responsive. By tradition, every new promising open-source project goes through PVS-Studio for us to evaluate the quality of its code.


                    The Ark Compiler was first announced by Huawei at the launch of the new smartphone models P30 and P30 Pro. It is claimed that the Ark Compiler will improve the fluency of the Android system by 24% and response speed by 44%. Third-party Android applications will also gain a 60% speed-up after recompilation with the Ark Compiler. The open-source version of the project is called OpenArkCompiler; its source code is available on Gitee, a Chinese fork of GitHub.
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                  • On request of Embedded Developers: Detecting Errors in Amazon FreeRTOS

                      Anyone who programs microcontrollers probably knows about FreeRTOS, or at least heard of this operating system. Amazon developers decided to enhance the abilities of this operating system to work with AWS Internet of Things services. This is how Amazon FreeRTOS appeared. We, developers of the PVS-Studio static code analyzer, were asked by mail and in comments to check these projects. Well, now get what you asked for. Keep reading to find out what came out of it.

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                    • Analyzing the Code of ROOT, Scientific Data Analysis Framework

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                        While Stockholm was holding the 118th Nobel Week, I was sitting in our office, where we develop the PVS-Studio static analyzer, working on an analysis review of the ROOT project, a big-data processing framework used in scientific research. This code wouldn't win a prize, of course, but the authors can definitely count on a detailed review of the most interesting defects plus a free license to thoroughly check the project on their own.


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                        ROOT is a modular scientific software toolkit. It provides all the functionalities needed to deal with big data processing, statistical analysis, visualisation and storage. It is mainly written in C++. ROOT was born at CERN, at the heart of the research on high-energy physics. Every day, thousands of physicists use ROOT applications to analyze their data or to perform simulations.
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                      • Checking Telegram Open Network with PVS-Studio

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                          Telegram Open Network (TON) is a platform by the same team that developed the Telegram messenger. In addition to the blockchain, TON provides a large set of services. The developers recently made the platform's code, which is written in C++, publicly available and uploaded it to GitHub. We decided to check the project before its official release.
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                        • Dark theme of Thunderbird as a reason to run a code analyzer

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                            The adventures with the Mozilla Thunderbird mail client began with automatic update to version 68.0. More text in pop-up notifications and default dark theme are the notable features of this version. Occasionally I found an error that I immediately craved to detect with static analysis. This became the reason to go for another check of the project source code using PVS-Studio. It so happened that by the time of the analysis, the bug had already been fixed. However, since we've paid some attention to the project, there's no reason not to write about other found defects.


                            The dark theme of the new Thunderbird version looks pretty. I like dark themes. I've already switched to them in messengers, Windows, macOS. Soon iPhone will be updated to iOS 13 with a dark theme. For this reason I even had to change my iPhone 5S for a newer model. In practice, it turned out that a dark theme requires more effort for developers to pick up the colors of the interface. Not everyone can handle it the first time.
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                          • One Day from PVS-Studio User Support

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                              We welcome any chatting on code quality. Our clients, students, and other users from all corners of the Internet write to us. Regardless of the country, time zone or language. Well, speaking language, not programming. Among programming languages, we are so far interested in a limited set. Right now, it's C, C++, C# and Java. There are many benefits from communication. We implement some users' suggestions immediately, because they are really useful. Often we just lend a hand with someone's project by explaining analyzer warnings, which end up being errors. This note is about such case.
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                            • PVS-Studio 7.04

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                                Summer is not only a holiday season, but also time of fruitful work. Sunny days are so inspiring that there's enough energy both for late walks and large code commits. The second summer PVS-Studio 7.04 release turned out to be quite large, so we suggest for your attention this press release, in which we'll tell you about everything.
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                              • CMake: the Case when the Project's Quality is Unforgivable

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                                  CMake is a cross-platform system for automating project builds. This system is much older than the PVS-Studio static code analyzer, but no one has tried to apply the analyzer on its code and review the errors. As it turned out, there are a lot of them. The CMake audience is huge. New projects start on it and old ones are ported. I shudder to think of how many developers could have had any given error.
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                                • Getting Started with the PVS-Studio Static Analyzer for C++ Development under Linux

                                    PVS-Studio supports analyzing projects developed in C, C++, C#, and Java. You can use the analyzer under Windows, Linux, and macOS. This small article will tell you the basics of analyzing C and C++ code in Linux environment.


                                    There are different ways to install PVS-Studio under Linux, depending on your distro type. The most convenient and preferred method is to use the repository, since it allows auto-updating the analyzer upon releasing new versions. Another option is to use the installation package, which you can get here.
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