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Let’s Discuss the Lorentz Transforms – Intermission: Rapidity, and What it Means

Mathematics *Physics

I thought my previous post rather funny, and was surprised seeing it initially receive so few views. I thought the entertainment flopped, but fortunately I was wrong. I therefore feel it my duty before my readers to address the subject of the Landau & Lifschitz proof of the invariance of the interval.

You can find the summary of it in Wikipedia. Making their starting point the light-like interval always being equal to zero, Landau & Lifschitz seem to make a great fuss about it. The Wikipedia article even says: ‘This is the immediate mathematical consequence of the invariance of the speed of light.’ No, it is not.

I beg everyone’s pardon, but the light-like interval always being equal to zero is nothing else but the following statement: ‘The length of a ray of light will always be equal to the length of this ray of light’. Sounds like a cool story, bros and sis, but I cannot see what further inferences can be drawn from it. The ‘proof’ of this truism cannot fail under any circumstances whatever – whether you keep the speed of light invariant, or keep or change the metric of space or time or both – or make both metric and speed of light change – the light-like interval will remain equal to zero. I am okay with anyone wanting to prove it if they feel like it, but you cannot make it an ‘immediate mathematical consequence of the invariance of the speed of light’. Neither is it possible to make the constancy of the speed of light a consequence of the invariance of the light-like interval for the reason already mentioned: this is a truism. It does not prove anything, nor can it be a consequence of anything. When Landau & Lifschitz insist that this is a consequence of the constancy of the speed of light, that is either an error or a downright subterfuge, a means employed to create a spectre of logical connection between two unconnected notions, and charge this ghostly connection with pretended significance. And, since the following proof of invariance of an arbitrary interval hangs on the invariance of the light-like interval, we can altogether dismiss it: the necessity of introduction of such a measure as interval cannot be derived from the statement that a length of something will be equal to itself in whatever frame of reference it is measured.

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Let’s Discuss the Lorentz Transforms – Part 1: Einstein’s 1905 Derivation

Mathematics *Physics

Even as I am posting this, I can see that my previous post received a hundred and twenty plus views, but no comments yet. I am saying again that my pursuit is not to give an answer, but to ask a question. I only wonder if there is in fact no answer to the questions I am asking – but anyway, I will continue asking them. If you know how to deal with the problems I am setting – or happen to understand they are not problems at all, I will be most grateful for a constructive input in the comments section. I am sorry to say I was unable to make this post sound as light and unpretentious as the previous one. This one deals with harder questions, is a little wordy, and requires at least elementary knowledge of calculus to be read properly.

In my previous post we discussed the ‘Galilean’ velocity composition used for introduction or substantiation of relative simultaneity. It is not the only point where Einstein resorts to sums c + v or c – v: he does that actually to deduce the Lorentz transforms, notwithstanding the fact that a corollary of the Lorentz transforms is a different velocity composition which makes the above sums null and void. It looks like the conclusions of this deduction negate its premises – but this is not the only strange thing about Einstein’s deduction of the Lorentz transforms undertaken by him in his famous 1905 article.

In Paragraph 3 of that paper Einstein is considering the linear function τ (the time of the reference frame in motion) of the four variables x′ = x – vt, y, z, and t (the three spatial coordinates and time of the frame of reference at rest) and eventually derives a relation between the coefficients of this linear function.

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Total votes 3: ↑3 and ↓0 +3
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Let’s Discuss Relativity of Simultaneity

Mathematics *Physics
Sandbox

There is one only too obvious problem with relativity of simultaneity in the way it is normally introduced, and I have never found an answer to it – what’s more, I never read or heard anyone formulate it. I will be grateful for an enlightening discussion.

The framework of the thought experiment introducing relativity of simultaneity is this. Two rays of light travel in opposite directions and reach their destination simultaneously in one frame of reference and at different moments in the other.

For example, in the Wikipedia article on the subject you can read:

‘A flash of light is given off at the center of the traincar just as the two observers pass each other. For the observer on board the train, the front and back of the traincar are at fixed distances from the light source and as such, according to this observer, the light will reach the front and back of the traincar at the same time.

‘For the observer standing on the platform, on the other hand, the rear of the traincar is moving (catching up) toward the point at which the flash was given off, and the front of the traincar is moving away from it. As the speed of light is finite and the same in all directions for all observers, the light headed for the back of the train will have less distance to cover than the light headed for the front. Thus, the flashes of light will strike the ends of the traincar at different times’.

I am always not a little surprised at the modesty displayed by the authors of such illustrations. If we grant the statement ‘the light headed for the back of the train will have less distance to cover than the light headed for the front’ to be true – how then do we evaluate the magnitude of the effect? Or, in other words, how much longer is one distance in comparison to the other?

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Total votes 3: ↑2 and ↓1 +1
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How in-app chats help e-learning platforms to be more interactive?

Instant Messaging *Development of mobile applications *API *Software Video conferencing

e-Learning is an extension of/ alternative to a traditional classroom setup. e-learning, commonly known as ‘online learning’ or ‘virtual learning’ is ideally a one-way or two-way digital communication established on a device with video and voice call integration using internet access. The last two years made us realize how technology can facilitate and improve communication. Digital technology had its impact in almost every industry including the sensitive education sector.

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It's alive

IT Standards *IT career Reading room The future is here IT-companies

I wonder why IT developer interviews are so strange most of the time. It feels as if the people are looking for computer science teachers, not engineers. All those theoretical questions that have no relation to the working reality. It is strange to be looking for eloquent teachers, who can perfectly explain any term or pattern, and then ask them to do the actual work. Maybe it is the imprint from the years spent in university when the teachers looked like all-knowing gods and seemed to solve any issue in your life. May be, may not. Anyway, these teachers stay in unis and don't do the work.

You know, what would be my universal answer to all interview questions? “I have no idea how and why it works, but I can use it, and I can use it for good”. This is the reality. Actually, no one knows exactly these hows and whys. What is a computer? What is electricity? What is an electron? No one knows for sure. But it works and we use it.

Imagine a famous author, like Stephen King, asked a question about the difference between deus ex machina and Mary Sue. Would his answer change the quality of his books? He may or he may not know all those scientific literature terms, but he can use the language and use it for good.

Every time I turn on my computer it is a wonder. I have no idea what is going on, but it awakes, it becomes alive, and I can communicate with it in its own sublime and subtle language.

Have you ever realised that all these electronic devices are monsters, Frankenstein's monsters? Some pieces of dead matter were put together, and then, with some electricity involved, it suddenly awoke. “It's alive!”. Had Frankenstein any idea why it turned alive? Of course not, or why he was so surprised? Every developer experiences this feeling almost every day. “It's working!”

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Total votes 7: ↑4 and ↓3 +1
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Conceptogram as a method to create more effective technical documentation

Иннотех corporate blog Popular science Technical Writing *
Translation

Konstantin Kotelnik, an analyst at Innotech, ponders over making technical documentation easier to understand for developers and helping the clip-thought generation work effectively with large quantities of data. Read the article to find out about the potential emergence of a graphical IT-Esperanto and the standardisation of technical language.

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Total votes 2: ↑2 and ↓0 +2
Views 561
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How I gave my old laptop second life

Configuring Linux *Nginx *Laptops
Sandbox

17-19 min read

Hi y'all, my name is Labertte and I use Arch btw.
Probably like every other Linux user, I'd like to buy a ThinkPad, put some lightweight distribution like Arch or Gentoo on it, and then go to Starbucks, get a soy latte and tell everyone that I use "linux". But I decided to go a little different route and give a chance to my old laptop that I was using about five or seven years ago.

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Total votes 2: ↑1 and ↓1 0
Views 1.8K
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FL_PyTorch is publicly available on GitHub

Mathematics *Machine learning *Artificial Intelligence

FL_PyTorch: Optimization Research Simulator for Federated Learning is publicly available on GitHub.

FL_PyTorch is a suite of open-source software written in python that builds on top of one of the most popular research Deep Learning (DL) frameworks PyTorch. We built FL_PyTorch as a research simulator for FL to enable fast development, prototyping, and experimenting with new and existing FL optimization algorithms. Our system supports abstractions that provide researchers with sufficient flexibility to experiment with existing and novel approaches to advance the state-of-the-art. The work is in proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Distributed Machine Learning DistributedML 2021. The paper, presentation, and appendix are available in DistributedML’21 Proceedings (https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3488659.3493775).

The project is distributed in open source form under Apache License Version 2.0. Code Repository: https://github.com/burlachenkok/flpytorch.

To become familiar with that tool, I recommend the following sequence of steps:

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Total votes 1: ↑0 and ↓1 -1
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How abortion in the age of surveillance capitalism turns Internet into a dystopia

Information Security *Cryptocurrencies
The reversal of Roe v. Wade, which launched a furious debate about abortion rights, has a side — and a very itchy side. In June 2022, the Supreme Court struck down federal protections for abortion rights in the United States, turning the decision on the legality of abortion over to the state level, many of whom had long been waiting for it: they had «trigger» laws banning abortion, and state prosecutors were preparing to prosecute for violating or trying to circumvent them.

Not even a week later, news emerged that the blow to women's rights might come from an unexpected (for naive Americans who are not familiar with the «Yarovaya Package» and other niceties of Russian legislation) side, when the willingness to «leak» personal data even without a decision was confirmed by the developers of major applications for women. Thus, suddenly, own gadgets and all the IT infrastructure that surrounds the modern man for his convenience, suddenly showed its downside: the possibility of total control over human life and actions.

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Total votes 8: ↑8 and ↓0 +8
Views 2.3K
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Stress-testing: How Testers Live in a Turbulent World of Bugs

Иннотех corporate blog IT systems testing *Lifehacks for geeks Brain Health
Translation

A tester is one of the most stressful roles in IT. You constantly need to be concentrated and report bugs to developers in your team. Lidiya Yegorova, Innotech’s “Scoring conveyor” team QA-Lead shared her practices on how to minimize the stress while testing.

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Metaverses: hype or the future to come?

Decentralized networks *Machine learning *Artificial Intelligence Social networks and communities AR and VR

Alexander Volchek, IT entrepreneur, CEO educational platform GeekBrains

Pretty much everyone in the IT community is talking metaverses, NFTs, blockchain and cryptocurrency. This time we will discuss metaverses, and come back to everything else in the letters to follow. Entrepreneurs and founders of tech giants are passionate about this idea, and investors are allocating millions of dollars for projects dealing with metaverses. Let's start with the basics.

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Total votes 2: ↑1 and ↓1 0
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«If I had a heart...» Artificial Intelligence

Reading room Artificial Intelligence Science fiction

Most people fear of artificial intelligence (AI) for the unpredictability of its possible actions and impact [1], [2]. In regard to this technology concerns are voiced also by AI experts themselves - scientists, engineers, among whom are the foremost faces of their professions [3], [4], [5]. And you possibly share these concerns because it's like leaving a child alone at home with a loaded gun on the table - in 2021, AI was first used on the battlefield in completely autonomous way: with an independent determination of a target and a decision to defeat it without operator participation [6]. But let’s be honest, since humanity has taken in the opportunities this new tool could give us, there is already no way back – this is how the law of gengle works [7].

Imagine the feeling of a caveman observing our modern routine world: electricity, Internet, smartphones, robots... etc. In the next two hundred years in large part thankfully to AI humankind will undergo the number of transformations it has since the moment we have learned to control the fire [8]. The effect of this technology will surpass all our previous changes as a civilization. And even as a species, because our destiny is not to create AI, but to literally become it.

... more, give me more, give me more ...
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Text-based CAPTCHA in 2022

Information Security *Machine learning *Artificial Intelligence
Translation

The first text-based CAPTCHA ( we’ll call it just CAPTCHA for the sake of brevity ) was used in 1997 by AltaVista search engine. It prevented bots from adding Uniform Resource Locator (URLs) to their web search engine.

Back then it was a decent defense measure. However the progress can't be stopped, and this defense was bypassed using OCR available at those times (for example FineReader).

CAPTCHA became more complex, noise was added to it, along with distortions, so the popular OCRs couldn’t recognize this text. And then OCRs custom made for this task appeared. It costed extra money and knowledge for the attacking side. The CAPTCHA developers were required to understand the challenges the attackers met, what distortions to add, in order to make the automation of the CAPTCHA recognition more complex.

The misunderstanding of the principles the OCRs were based on, some CAPTCHAs were given such distortions, that they were more of a hassle for regular users than for a machine.

OCRs for different types of CAPTCHAs were made using heuristics, and the most complicated part of it was the CAPTCHA segmentation for the stand along symbols, that subsequently could be easily recognized by the CNN (for example LeNet-5), also SVM showed a good result even on the raw pixels.

In this article I’ll try to grasp the whole history of CAPTCHA recognition, from heuristics to the contemporary automated recognition systems. We’ll figure out, if a CAPTCHA is still alive.

I’ll review the yandex.com CAPTCHA. The Russian version of the same CAPTCHA is more complex.

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Total votes 4: ↑3 and ↓1 +2
Views 1.2K
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Wi-Fi and CWMP (TR-069) / USP (TR-369) protocols: frequency optimization attempt

Wireless technologies *Popular science

I guess, it's not a big deal to say that Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11 standards) is the one of the most popular and most spread communication technology of the current day. Especially indoors. The growing number of Wi-Fi devices still remains that leads to the overcrowded spectrums: both 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz.


This fact means increasing of demand for some optimization routines for utilization of resources. And therefore some RRM (Radio Resource Management) systems become required.



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Total votes 1: ↑1 and ↓0 +1
Views 3.8K
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A Step-by-Step Guide To Integrate Video Calling Features Within Apps Using WebRTC

API *Video conferencing
Tutorial

WebRTC integrations have emerged as a game-changer in the Video Calling Technology over the years. The protocol has redefined the way real-time video communications take Developers can integrate WebRTCs commonly available as JavaScript APIs to add audio and video solutions to their apps. place. Developers can integrate WebRTCs commonly available as JavaScript APIs to add audio and video solutions to their apps. This tutorial will take you through the steps in developing a two-way video call between two devices. 

WebRTC (Web Real-Time Communication) is a set of rules that can establish bidirectional and full-duplex communication between our two devices using JavaScript. It connects your devices and enables transfer of unlimited real-time audio and video across any operating system. However, the WebRTC agents created for both devices do not know any information about each other inorder to establish the media exchange. At this point, a third, mutually agreed-upon server is introduced. This server which connects the devices to transfer data with necessary information about the endpoints is known as the Signaling Server. 

Before we start off with the steps, it is necessary to become familiar with the basics of the integration process. 

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Utilitarian blockchain. 1. Assets

Decentralized networks *Research and forecasts in IT *Finance in IT Cryptocurrencies
image

In the modern world, the term " **blockchain** " is steadily associated with cryptocurrencies, NFTs, mining, trading and financial pyramids. However, even among programmers and IT people there is not always a clear understanding of what it is and what it is for.

This article attempts to look at this still relatively new element of the information and human space in practical and slightly philosophical aspects.

> **Disclaimer**: The article will use simple language to explain non-trivial concepts, so non-critical distortion of technical details is possible.
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Audio API Quick Start Guide: Playing and Recording Sound on Linux, Windows, FreeBSD and macOS

Programming *C *Development for Linux *Development for Windows *Sound
Tutorial

Hearing is one of the few basic senses that we humans have along with the other our abilities to see, smell, taste and touch. If we couldn't hear, the world as we know it would be less interesting and colorful to us. It would be a total silence - a scary thing, even to imagine. And speaking makes our life so much fun, because what else can be better than talking to our friends and family? Also, we're able to listen to our favorite music wherever we are, thanks to computers and headphones. With the help of tiny microphones integrated into our phones and laptops we are now able to talk to the people around the world from any place with an Internet connection. But computer hardware alone isn't enough - it is computer software that really defines the way how and when the hardware should operate. Operating Systems provide the means for that to the apps that want to use computer's audio capabilities. In real use-cases audio data usually goes the long way from one end to another, being transformed and (un)compressed on-the-fly, attenuated, filtered, and so on. But in the end it all comes down to just 2 basic processes: playing the sound or recording it.

Today we're going to discuss how to make use of the API that popular OS provide: this is an essential knowledge if you want to create an app yourself which works with audio I/O. But there's just one problem standing on our way: there is no single API that all OS support. In fact, there are completely different API, different approaches, slightly different logic. We could just use some library which solves all those problems for us, but in that case we won't understand what's really going on under the hood - what's the point? But humans are built the way that we sometimes want to dig a little bit deeper, to learn a little bit more than what just lies on the surface. That's why we're going to learn the API that OS provide by default: ALSA (Linux), PulseAudio (Linux), WASAPI (Windows), OSS (FreeBSD), CoreAudio (macOS).

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The Significance of In-app Messaging Applications in your Digital Business

Instant Messaging *Development of mobile applications *API *Software Video conferencing

In-app messages are targeted notifications sent to customers/ users while they are active on the website or mobile application. They are a very effective way to engage customers as they are already within the application looking for specific information. In-app chat applications help connect better with the users and improve user retention as they are timely and targeted. 

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