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Raw SQL vs Entity Framework Core: Which is Right for Your Application?

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When it comes to querying databases in .NET applications, there are two main approaches: using Raw SQL queries or an Object-Relational Mapping (ORM) framework such as Entity Framework Core. Both approaches have their advantages and drawbacks, and the choice between them depends on various factors such as performance, ease of use, security, and developer experience.

In this post, we'll compare Raw SQL and Entity Framework Core and explore their strengths and weaknesses in various scenarios. We'll look at factors such as performance, usability, and security, and examine how Raw SQL and Entity Framework Core handle different types of queries and databases. By the end of this post, you'll have a better understanding of which approach is best suited for your particular use case.

What is Raw SQL?

Raw SQL refers to SQL queries that are written directly in code, rather than using an ORM framework like Entity Framework Core. Raw SQL queries can be used with any database that supports SQL, and offer developers greater control over query optimization and execution. Here are some of the advantages and disadvantages of using Raw SQL:


Performance: Since Raw SQL allows developers to write highly optimized queries, it can often outperform an ORM framework like Entity Framework Core. Raw SQL also provides greater control over query execution, allowing developers to fine-tune query performance and avoid unnecessary database round trips.

Flexibility: Raw SQL queries offer developers more flexibility than an ORM framework. Developers can write any type of query they need, and can optimize the query as much as required. Raw SQL also enables developers to execute complex joins, subqueries, and other advanced SQL features that may not be supported by an ORM framework.

Existing SQL skills: If developers are already proficient in SQL, they can use Raw SQL without the need to learn a new framework. This can save development time and effort, and enable developers to write more efficient queries.


Complexity: Raw SQL queries can be more complex to write and maintain than an ORM-based approach. Developers need to know SQL syntax and query optimization techniques, and must be familiar with the database schema. This can make it more difficult to work with large or complex databases.

Security risks: Raw SQL queries are more susceptible to SQL injection attacks than an ORM-based approach. Developers need to be careful to properly escape user input to avoid potential security vulnerabilities.

Code maintenance: Since Raw SQL queries are written directly in code, they can be harder to maintain and refactor than queries written with an ORM framework. Changes to the database schema can require changes to all Raw SQL queries that use it, which can be time-consuming and error-prone.

What is Entity Framework Core?

Entity Framework Core (EF Core) is a popular ORM framework for .NET applications. It enables developers to work with databases using object-oriented techniques, rather than writing Raw SQL queries. EF Core supports multiple database providers, including SQL Server, MySQL, PostgreSQL, and SQLite, and offers a range of features that can simplify database access and improve developer productivity. Here are some of the advantages and disadvantages of using Entity Framework Core:


Ease of use: EF Core simplifies database access by providing an object-oriented abstraction over the database schema. Developers can write queries using LINQ (Language-Integrated Query) syntax, which is easy to read and understand. EF Core also generates SQL queries on the developer's behalf, reducing the need for manual query optimization.

Developer productivity: EF Core includes features like automatic schema migration, change tracking, and caching, which can save developers time and effort. EF Core also supports database-first and code-first development, enabling developers to choose the approach that best suits their needs.

Security: EF Core provides protection against SQL injection attacks by automatically parameterizing queries. This reduces the risk of security vulnerabilities caused by improper user input handling.


Performance: EF Core can be slower than Raw SQL queries in some scenarios, particularly when dealing with large datasets or complex queries. This is because EF Core generates queries based on the object model, rather than optimizing the SQL itself.

Abstraction: While the object-oriented abstraction provided by EF Core can simplify database access, it can also hide the underlying SQL queries from developers. This can make it more difficult to optimize queries or debug performance issues.

Learning curve: Developers may need to invest time in learning the EF Core API and best practices to effectively use the framework. This can be a barrier to adoption for some teams.

Comparing Raw SQL and Entity Framework Core using a Decision Matrix

Here's a decision matrix comparing Raw SQL and Entity Framework Core based on various factors:



Entity Framework Core




Ease of use









Code maintainability



Learning curve



As we can see from the decision matrix, Raw SQL and Entity Framework Core have different strengths and weaknesses depending on the factor being considered. Raw SQL has better performance and flexibility, but lower ease of use and code maintainability. Entity Framework Core, on the other hand, has better ease of use, security, and code maintainability, but may not perform as well in some scenarios.

Consider the factors that are most important to your application and development team, and use them to make an informed decision between Raw SQL and Entity Framework Core.

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