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Пошаговая настройка OpenVPN в Windows

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Появилась у меня необходимость подключаться к компьютеру, находящемуся в локальной сети офиса из дома. Как варианты, рассматривал различные решения, будь то Team Viewer ,ssh-тунель и т.д., но в итоге было решено остановиться на OpenVpn, ввиду гарантированной безопасности, надежности соединения и фриварности софта.
Но к своему удивлению любую инструкцию, приходилось в той или иной степени дорабатывать. Поэтому решил предложить вашему вниманию свой вариант. Инструкция «сухая» без особых объяснений конфигов, рассчитанная на то, что можно особо не вдаваясь в смысл поднять шифрованный туннель.
Для начала, конечно, скачиваем программу с официального сайта(http://openvpn.net/index.php/download/community-downloads.html). Далее рекомендую установить её в директорию «c:\openvpn», дабы потом не возникало лишних проблем с путями. Также сразу надо создать «c:\openvpn\ssl», после поместим сюда все наши «ключики», «с:\OpenVPN\log\openvpn.log» и «с:\OpenVPN\log\openvpn-status.log» — для записи логов.
Приступаем к редактированию всех наших конфигов.Чтобы офисный файервол не мешал будущему соединению настроим серверную часть дома на ПК, а клиентскую на рабочем.

Настраиваем сервер.


Создаем:
с:\openvpn\easy-rsa\vars.bat

echo off
set path=%path%;c:\OpenVPN\bin
set HOME=c:\OpenVPN\easy-rsa
set KEY_CONFIG=openssl.cnf
set KEY_DIR=c:\OpenVPN\ssl
set KEY_SIZE=1024
set KEY_COUNTRY=RU
set KEY_PROVINCE=mycity
set KEY_CITY= mycity
set KEY_ORG=Comp
set KEY_EMAIL=admin@local

«с:\openvpn\easy-rsa\openssl.cnf»
#
# OpenSSL example configuration file.
# This is mostly being used for generation of certificate requests.
#

# This definition stops the following lines choking if HOME isn't
# defined.
HOME =.
RANDFILE = $ENV::HOME/.rnd

# Extra OBJECT IDENTIFIER info:
#oid_file = $ENV::HOME/.oid
oid_section = new_oids

# To use this configuration file with the "-extfile" option of the
# «openssl x509» utility, name here the section containing the
# X.509v3 extensions to use:
# extensions =
# (Alternatively, use a configuration file that has only
# X.509v3 extensions in its main [= default] section.)

[ new_oids ]

# We can add new OIDs in here for use by 'ca' and 'req'.
# Add a simple OID like this:
# testoid1=1.2.3.4
# Or use config file substitution like this:
# testoid2=${testoid1}.5.6

####################################################################
[ ca ]
default_ca = CA_default # The default ca section

####################################################################
[ CA_default ]

dir = $ENV::KEY_DIR # Where everything is kept
certs = $dir # Where the issued certs are kept
crl_dir = $dir # Where the issued crl are kept
database = $dir/index.txt # database index file.
new_certs_dir = $dir # default place for new certs.

certificate = $dir/ca.crt # The CA certificate
serial = $dir/serial # The current serial number
crl = $dir/crl.pem # The current CRL
private_key = $dir/ca.key # The private key
RANDFILE = $dir/.rand # private random number file

x509_extensions = usr_cert # The extentions to add to the cert

# Extensions to add to a CRL. Note: Netscape communicator chokes on V2 CRLs
# so this is commented out by default to leave a V1 CRL.
# crl_extensions = crl_ext

default_days = 3650 # how long to certify for
default_crl_days= 30 # how long before next CRL
default_md = md5 # which md to use.
preserve = no # keep passed DN ordering

# A few difference way of specifying how similar the request should look
# For type CA, the listed attributes must be the same, and the optional
# and supplied fields are just that :-)
policy = policy_match

# For the CA policy
[ policy_match ]
countryName = match
stateOrProvinceName = match
organizationName = match
organizationalUnitName = optional
commonName = supplied
emailAddress = optional

# For the 'anything' policy
# At this point in time, you must list all acceptable 'object'
# types.
[ policy_anything ]
countryName = optional
stateOrProvinceName = optional
localityName = optional
organizationName = optional
organizationalUnitName = optional
commonName = supplied
emailAddress = optional

####################################################################
[ req ]
default_bits = $ENV::KEY_SIZE
default_keyfile = privkey.pem
distinguished_name = req_distinguished_name
attributes = req_attributes
x509_extensions = v3_ca # The extentions to add to the self signed cert

# Passwords for private keys if not present they will be prompted for
# input_password = secret
# output_password = secret

# This sets a mask for permitted string types. There are several options.
# default: PrintableString, T61String, BMPString.
# pkix: PrintableString, BMPString.
# utf8only: only UTF8Strings.
# nombstr: PrintableString, T61String (no BMPStrings or UTF8Strings).
# MASK:XXXX a literal mask value.
# WARNING: current versions of Netscape crash on BMPStrings or UTF8Strings
# so use this option with caution!
string_mask = nombstr

# req_extensions = v3_req # The extensions to add to a certificate request

[ req_distinguished_name ]
countryName = Country Name (2 letter code)
countryName_default = $ENV::KEY_COUNTRY
countryName_min = 2
countryName_max = 2

stateOrProvinceName = State or Province Name (full name)
stateOrProvinceName_default = $ENV::KEY_PROVINCE

localityName = Locality Name (eg, city)
localityName_default = $ENV::KEY_CITY

0.organizationName = Organization Name (eg, company)
0.organizationName_default = $ENV::KEY_ORG

# we can do this but it is not needed normally :-)
#1.organizationName = Second Organization Name (eg, company)
#1.organizationName_default = World Wide Web Pty Ltd

organizationalUnitName = Organizational Unit Name (eg, section)
#organizationalUnitName_default =

commonName = Common Name (eg, your name or your server\'s hostname)
commonName_max = 64

emailAddress = Email Address
emailAddress_default = $ENV::KEY_EMAIL
emailAddress_max = 40

# SET-ex3 = SET extension number 3

[ req_attributes ]
challengePassword = A challenge password
challengePassword_min = 4
challengePassword_max = 20

unstructuredName = An optional company name

[ usr_cert ]

# These extensions are added when 'ca' signs a request.

# This goes against PKIX guidelines but some CAs do it and some software
# requires this to avoid interpreting an end user certificate as a CA.

basicConstraints=CA:FALSE

# Here are some examples of the usage of nsCertType. If it is omitted
# the certificate can be used for anything *except* object signing.

# This is OK for an SSL server.
# nsCertType = server

# For an object signing certificate this would be used.
# nsCertType = objsign

# For normal client use this is typical
# nsCertType = client, email

# and for everything including object signing:
# nsCertType = client, email, objsign

# This is typical in keyUsage for a client certificate.
# keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment

# This will be displayed in Netscape's comment listbox.
nsComment = «OpenSSL Generated Certificate»

# PKIX recommendations harmless if included in all certificates.
subjectKeyIdentifier=hash
authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid,issuer:always

# This stuff is for subjectAltName and issuerAltname.
# Import the email address.
# subjectAltName=email:copy

# Copy subject details
# issuerAltName=issuer:copy

#nsCaRevocationUrl = www.domain.dom/ca-crl.pem
#nsBaseUrl
#nsRevocationUrl
#nsRenewalUrl
#nsCaPolicyUrl
#nsSslServerName

[ server ]

# JY ADDED — Make a cert with nsCertType set to «server»
basicConstraints=CA:FALSE
nsCertType = server
nsComment = «OpenSSL Generated Server Certificate»
subjectKeyIdentifier=hash
authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid,issuer:always

[ v3_req ]

# Extensions to add to a certificate request

basicConstraints = CA:FALSE
keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment

[ v3_ca ]


# Extensions for a typical CA


# PKIX recommendation.

subjectKeyIdentifier=hash

authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid:always,issuer:always

# This is what PKIX recommends but some broken software chokes on critical
# extensions.
#basicConstraints = critical,CA:true
# So we do this instead.
basicConstraints = CA:true

# Key usage: this is typical for a CA certificate. However since it will
# prevent it being used as an test self-signed certificate it is best
# left out by default.
# keyUsage = cRLSign, keyCertSign

# Some might want this also
# nsCertType = sslCA, emailCA

# Include email address in subject alt name: another PKIX recommendation
# subjectAltName=email:copy
# Copy issuer details
# issuerAltName=issuer:copy

# DER hex encoding of an extension: beware experts only!
# obj=DER:02:03
# Where 'obj' is a standard or added object
# You can even override a supported extension:
# basicConstraints= critical, DER:30:03:01:01:FF

[ crl_ext ]

# CRL extensions.
# Only issuerAltName and authorityKeyIdentifier make any sense in a CRL.

# issuerAltName=issuer:copy
authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid:always,issuer:always

Копируем index.txt.start в index.txt, а serial.start в serial в папку ssl

Пора создавать сертификаты


Открываем командную строку от имени администратора и выполняем последовательно:
  • vars
  • clean-all
  • build-ca
    #(принимаем все значения по умолчанию нажатием клавиши Enter)
  • build-dh
  • build-key-server SERVER_NAME(на ваш выбор)
    #При запросе на ввод Common name необходимо снова ввести наше SERVER_NAME
    Далее во избежание проблем с созданием сертификата клиента очищаем index.txt папке ssl
  • buid-key KLIENT(на ваш выбор)
  • openvpn --genkey --secret %KEY_DIR%\ta.key

Создаем server.ovpn в папке config и редактируем его.
Создаем server.ovpn в папке config и редактируем его.
server.ovpn
dev tun
proto tcp-server
port 5190
tls-server
server 192.168.0.0 255.255.255.0
comp-lzo
dh C:\\OpenVPN\\ssl\\dh1024.pem
ca C:\\OpenVPN\\ssl\\ca.crt
cert C:\\OpenVPN\\ssl\\Server.crt
key C:\\OpenVPN\\ssl\\Server.key
tls-auth C:\\OpenVPN\\ssl\\ta.key 0
tun-mtu 1500
tun-mtu-extra 32
mssfix 1450
keepalive 10 120
status C:\\OpenVPN\\log\\openvupn-status.log
log C:\\OpenVPN\\log\\openvpn.log
verb 3

Отправляем CA.crt, klient.crt, klient.key, ta.key из «c:\openvpn\ssl» нашим клиентам (помещаем их в такую же директорию « c:\openvpn\ssl»).

Настройка клиента


На компьютере клиента необходимо установить скаченное нами приложение по такому же пути c:\openvpn. Cоздаем папку ssl и файлы openvpn.log, openvpn-status.log
Cоздаем clientVPN.ovpn в папке c:\openvpn\config и редактируем его.
”clientVPN.ovpn”
dev tun
proto tcp
remote x.x.x.x 7777 (адрес серевера по сети ip/dyndns)
route-delay 3
client
tls-client
ns-cert-type server
ca C:\\OpenVPN\\ssl\\ca.crt
cert C:\\OpenVPN\\ssl\\client.crt
key C:\\OpenVPN\\ssl\\client.key
tls-auth C:\\OpenVPN\\ssl\\ta.key 1
comp-lzo
tun-mtu 1500
tun-mtu-extra 32
mssfix 1450
ping-restart 60
ping 10
status C:\\OpenVPN\\log\\openvpn-status.log
log C:\\OpenVPN\\log\\openvpn.log
verb 3


На сервере запускаем файл server.ovpn(кнопка «StartOpenvpn…» в контекстном меню), на клиенте clientVPN.ovpn. При необходимости изменяем тип запуска нашей службы(OpenVPN Service) на «Автоматически». Туннель поднят, можете смело заходить на работу, допустим по RDP. Адрес сервера в нашей виртуальной сети будет 192.168.0.1. Надеюсь, этот пост сократит время для настройки OpenVpn, даже для самых начинающих до нескольких минут.
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