Let’s imagine you need access to the real-time data of some smart contracts on Ethereum (or Polygon, BSC, etc.) like Uniswap or even PEPE coin to analyze its data using the standard data scientist/analyst tools: Python, Pandas, Matplotlib, etc. In this tutorial, I’ll show you more sophisticated data access tools that are more like a surgical scalpel (The Graph subgraphs) than a well-known Swiss knife (RPC node access) or hammer (ready-to-use APIs). I hope my metaphors don’t scare you 😅.
Decentralized networks *
Overlay computer network
The following text consists of two logically connected parts. The first part constructively rules out the assumption that untraceability supposes anonymity. The second part enumerates specific practical tasks in the form of various scenarios when digital signatures (DS) do not provide correct solutions to the task. It is demonstrated that a complete solution can be obtained through a special combination of DS and an interactive anonymous identification protocol.
The National Internet Segment Reliability Research explains how the outage of a single Autonomous System might affect the connectivity of the impacted region with the rest of the world. Generally, the most critical AS in the region is the dominant ISP on the market, but not always.
As the number of alternate routes between ASes increases (the "Internet" stands for "interconnected networks" - and each network is an AS), so does the fault-tolerance and stability of the Internet across the globe. Although some paths are more important than others from the beginning, establishing as many alternate routes as possible is the only viable way to ensure an adequately robust network.
The global connectivity of any given AS, whether an international giant or a regional player, depends on the quantity and quality of its path to Tier-1 ISPs.
Usually, Tier-1 implies an international company offering global IP transit service over connections with other Tier-1 providers. Nevertheless, there is no guarantee that such connectivity will always be maintained. For many ISPs at all "tiers", losing connection to even one Tier-1 peer would likely render them unreachable from some parts of the world.
Alexander Volchek, IT entrepreneur, CEO educational platform GeekBrains
Pretty much everyone in the IT community is talking metaverses, NFTs, blockchain and cryptocurrency. This time we will discuss metaverses, and come back to everything else in the letters to follow. Entrepreneurs and founders of tech giants are passionate about this idea, and investors are allocating millions of dollars for projects dealing with metaverses. Let's start with the basics.
In the modern world, the term " **blockchain** " is steadily associated with cryptocurrencies, NFTs, mining, trading and financial pyramids. However, even among programmers and IT people there is not always a clear understanding of what it is and what it is for.
This article attempts to look at this still relatively new element of the information and human space in practical and slightly philosophical aspects.
> **Disclaimer**: The article will use simple language to explain non-trivial concepts, so non-critical distortion of technical details is possible.
The spread of cryptocurrencies contributed to the development of many solutions based on a distributed ledger technology (blockchain). Although the scope of these solutions varies, most of them have the same basic set of security services, i.e. confidentiality, authenticity, and integrity. These features are granted by the practical applications of public key cryptography, in particular, digital signature (DS). But unlike many other applications of public key cryptography, cryptocurrency networks do not use public key certificates. This is the aspect that we would like to talk about.
My name is Alexander Zubkov and today I’d like to talk about routing loops.
Smoothly the era of mesh-networks is upon us. At the very least, the term is appearing more and more often in the information sphere. What attracts the attention of networkers? Let's try to understand the question, taking Yggdrasil network as an example as one of the most promising prototypes. The article is intended for a wide range of readers.
The DHT system has existed for many years now, and torrents along with it, which we successfully use to get any information we want.
Together with this system, there are commands to interact with it. There are not many of them, but only two are needed to create a decentralized database: put and get.
Blockchain is a decentralized technology that maintains a record of all transactions occurring over a peer-to-peer network. Due to Blockchain's several different high-level use cases, numerous industries described Blockchain as the 'magic beans.'
Blockchains store the record in a decentralized system that is interconnected. This technology lessens vulnerability and enhances transparency in all industrial sectors as information is stored digitally, and it does not have any centralized point to carry out the transactions.
Do You Know?
We are a team of independent developers. We have created a new messenger, the purpose of which is to solve the critical problems of the modern Internet and the modes of communication it provides. We see users become hostages to the services they have grown accustomed to and we see corporations exploiting their users and controlling them. And we don’t like it. We believe the Internet should be different.
In this Manifesto, we disclose our vision of the Internet and describe what we have done to make it better. If you share our ideas — join us. Together we can achieve more than each of us can alone.
What is this article about?
In this article, I will tell about my participation in the first (out of two so far) Telegram blockchain contest. I didn't win any prize. However, decided to combine and share the unique experience I have had from the start to finish line, so my observations could help anyone who is interested.
Since I didn't want to write some abstract code, instead make something useful. I created instant lottery smart-contract and website which shows smart-contract data directly from Telegram Open Network (TON) avoiding any middle storage layers.
The article will be particularly useful for those, who want to write their first smart-contract for TON but don't know where to start.
Using the lottery as an example, I will go from setting up the environment to publishing a smart contract, interacting with it. Moreover, I will create a website that will show smart-contract data.
In this article, we will once again dive deeper into the problems of PKI and consider the solutions being developed that can overcome existing shortcomings.
Blockchain oracles resolve the issue of delivering external data to the blockchain – but we still need to know which of them we can trust.
Due to modern business demands, IBM joined hands with other companies to develop an open-source business blockchain network called Hyperledger Fabric project that is touching the sky. Due to modular architecture, digital keys, and on-demand data retrieval, hyperledger fabric is regarded as the base for the world’s future modular architecture blockchain-based apps. Further benefits of Hyperledger Fabric are given below to facilitate your interpretation.
Digital certificates are one of the most commonly known auxiliary tools that help protect data across public networks. However, the key disadvantage of this technology is also commonly known: users are forced to implicitly trust certification authorities which issue digital certificates. Andrey Chmora, Technology and Innovations Director at ENCRY, suggested a new approach for building a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) to eliminate the existing disadvantages using the distributed ledger (blockchain) technology.
Let's begin with the basics.
This report explains how the outage of a single AS can affect the connectivity of the impacted region with the rest of the world, especially when it is the dominant ISP on the market. Internet connectivity at the network level is driven by interaction between autonomous systems (AS’s). As the number of alternate routes between AS’s increases, so goes the fault-resistance and stability of the internet across the network. Although some paths inevitably become more important than others, establishing as many alternate routes as possible is the only viable way to ensure an adequately robust system.
The global connectivity of any AS, regardless of whether it is a minor provider or an international giant, depends on the quantity and quality of its paths to Tier-1 ISPs. Usually, Tier-1 implies an international company offering global IP transit service over connections to other Tier-1 providers. But there is no guarantee that such connectivity will be maintained. Only the market can motivate them to peer with other Tier-1’s to deliver the highest quality service. Is that enough? We explore this question in the IPv6 section below. For many ISPs at all levels, losing connection to just one Tier-1 peer would likely render them unreachable in some parts of the world.
Measuring Internet Reliability
Let’s examine a case where an AS experiences significant network degradation. We want to answer the following question: “How many AS’s in the region would lose connectivity with Tier-1 operators and their global availability along with it?”
In this article, we explain how we solved this problem for our games. The first of these was Waves Xmas Tree.
I like Tox and respect the participants of this project and their work. In an effort to help Tox developers and users, I looked into the code and noticed potential problems that could lead to a false sense of security. Since I originally published this article in 2016 (in Russian), many improvements have been made to Tox, and I lead a team that re-wrote secure Tox software from scratch using the Rust programming language (check out Tox-rs). I DO recommend using tox in 2019. Let's take a look what actually made us rewrite Tox in Rust.
Original article of 2016
There is an unhealthy tendency to overestimate the security of E2E systems only on the basis that they are E2E. I will present objective facts supplemented with my own comments for you to draw your own conclusions.
Spoiler: The Tox developers agree with my points and my source code pull request was accepted.