• BGP perforating wound

      It was an ordinary Thursday on 4.04.2019. Except that at some point of the midday timeline an AS60280 belonging to Belarus’ NTEC leaked 18600 prefixes originating from approximately 1400 ASes.

      Those routes were taken from the transit provider RETN (AS9002) and further announced to NTEC’s provider — RU-telecom’s AS205540, which, in its turn, accepted all of them, spreading the leak.

      image
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    • Flightradar24 — how does it work? Part 2, ADS-B protocol

        I’m going to have a guess and say that everyone whose friends or family have ever flown on a plane, have used Flightradar24 — a free and convenient service for tracking flights in real time.

        image

        In the first part the basic ideas of operation were described. Now let's go further and figure out, what data is exactly transmitting and receiving between the aircraft and a ground station. We'll also decode this data using Python.
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      • How iOS Developers Are Seeking To Up The Ante With Cloud Computing

        image

        As a platform, many enterprises are leveraging iOS to realize the amazing benefits of cloud computing. This is one aspect of digital transformation that has been rocking the entire industry in recent times. Generally, there is only a few internet-based development and deployment service performed on the platform that is not concerned with cloud application development. Nowadays, there is a growing population of iOS developers and app development companies that are steadily adopting cloud computing.
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      • Windows Virtual Desktop now in public preview on Azure

          We recently shared the public preview of the Windows Virtual Desktop service on Azure. Now customers can access the only service that delivers simplified management, multi-session Windows 10, optimizations for Office 365 ProPlus, and support for Windows Server Remote Desktop Services (RDS) desktops and apps. With Windows Virtual Desktop, you can deploy and scale your Windows desktops and apps on Azure in minutes, while enjoying built-in security and compliance.


          Image of women on her desktop in the workplace

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        • «Non-Blockchain Games Involving Money Must Die»



            Dmitry Pichulin, known under the nick «deemru», won the game Fhloston Paradise, developed by Tradisys on the Waves blockchain.

            The winner of Fhloston Paradise was supposed to be the player paying the very last stake during a 60-block period, before any other player could pay their stake and reset the counter to zero. The winner would collect all stakes paid by other players.

            Dmitry's winning recipe was the bot Patrollo, which he created. The bot paid just eight 1 WAVES stakes for Dmitry and eventually won him 4,700 WAVES ($13,100). In this interview, Dmitry discusses his bot and prospects of blockchain games.

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          • Dozen tricks with Linux shell which could save your time



              • First of all, you can read this article in russian here.

              One evening, I was reading Mastering regular expressions by Jeffrey Friedl , I realized that even if you have all the documentation and a lot of experience, there could be a lot of tricks developed by different people and imprisoned for themselves. All people are different. And techniques that are obvious for certain people may not be obvious to others and look like some kind of weird magic to third person. By the way, I already described several such moments here (in russian) .

              For the administrator or the user the command line is not only a tool that can do everything, but also a highly customized tool that could be develops forever. Recently there was a translated article about some useful tricks in CLI. But I feel that the translator do not have enough experience with CLI and didn't follow the tricks described, so many important things could be missed or misunderstood.

              Under the cut — a dozen tricks in Linux shell from my personal experience.
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            • Using Linux Kernel Sequence Files

                A characteristic feature of modern programming is the use of the global network as a source of reference information, in particular, a source of patterns for solving unknown or little-known problems for a specific programmer. Such an approach saves a lot of time and often gives quite qualitative results. However, the solutions laid out in the network although usually correct, do not always take into account all the subtleties of solving a problem, which leads to the appearance in the source code of sections that usually work correctly, but under not quite standard circumstances become sources of unpleasant surprises.

                Consider the topic of using sequence files in the Linux kernel, such files are considered to be the most convenient mechanism for printing from kernel mode. But in practice, using them correctly is much more difficult than you would think.

                A lot of materials on this topic are available online. The best is the source code of the kernel itself which has quite detailed comments. The problem with this source of information is its volume. If you do not know exactly what to look for, it is better if you only have limited time, not to try at all. For me, when I became interested in the topic, Google provided several seemingly excellent sources of information relating to my search: the famous book The Linux Kernel Module Programming Guide and a series of articles by Rob Day. These sources are not new, but very solid.
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              • Russian Internet Segment Architecture

                  As many of our readers know, Qrator.Radar is constantly researching global BGP connectivity, as well as regional. Since the Internet stands for “Interconnected Networks,” to ensure the best possible quality and speed the interconnectivity of individual networks should be rich and diverse, with their growth motivated on a sound competitive basis.

                  The fault-resistance of an internet connection in any given region or country is tied to the number of alternate routes between ASes. Though, as we stated before in our Internet Segments Reliability reports, some paths are obviously more critical compared to the others (for example, the paths to the Tier-1 transit ISPs or autonomous systems hosting authoritative DNS servers), which means that having as many reachable routes as possible is the only viable way to ensure adequate system scalability, stability and robustness.

                  This time, we are going to have a closer look at the Russian Federation internet segment. There are reasons to keep an eye on that segment: according to the numbers provided by the RIPE database, there are 6183 autonomous systems in Russia, out of 88664 registered worldwide, which stands for 6.87% of total.

                  This percentage puts Russia on a second place in the world, right after the USA (30.08% of registered ASes) and before Brazil, owning 6.34% of all autonomous systems. Effects of changes in the Russian connectivity could be observed across many other countries dependant on or adjacent to that connectivity, and ultimately by almost any ISP in the world.
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                • Achieve more with Microsoft Game Stack

                    Microsoft Game Stack


                    Microsoft is built on the belief of empowering people and organizations to achieve more – it is the DNA of our company. We are announcing a new initiative, Microsoft Game Stack, in which we commit to bringing together Microsoft tools and services that will empower game developers like yourself, whether you’re an indie developer just starting out or a AAA studio, to achieve more.


                    This is the start of a new journey, and today we are only taking the first steps. We believe Microsoft is uniquely suited to deliver on that commitment. Our company has a long legacy in games – and in building developer-focused platforms.


                    There are 2 billion gamers in the world today, playing a broad range of games, on a broad range of devices. There is as much focus on video streaming, watching, and sharing within a community as there is on playing or competing. As game creators, you strive every day to continuously engage your players, to spark their imaginations, and inspire them, regardless of where they are, or what device they’re using. We’re introducing Microsoft Game Stack, to help you do exactly that.

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                  • Checking FreeRDP with PVS-Studio

                      Picture 2

                      FreeRDP is an open-source implementation of the Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP), a proprietary protocol by Microsoft. The project supports multiple platforms, including Windows, Linux, macOS, and even iOS and Android. We chose it to be the first project analyzed with the static code analyzer PVS-Studio for a series of articles about the checks of RDP-clients.
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                    • How Protonmail is getting censored by FSB in Russia

                      • Translation

                      A completely routine tech support ticket has uncovered unexpected bans of IP addresses of Protonmail — a very useful service for people valuing their Internet freedoms — in several regions of Russia. I seriously didn’t want to sensationalize the headline, but the story is so strange and inexplicable I couldn’t resist.


                      TL;DR


                      Disclaimer: the situation is still developing. There might not be anything malicious, but most likely there is. I will update the post once new information comes through.


                      MTS and Rostelecom — two of the biggest Russian ISPs — started to block traffic to SMTP servers of the encrypted email service Protonmail according to an FSB request, with no regard for the official government registry of restricted websites. It seems like it’s been happening for a while, but no one paid special attention to it. Until now.


                      All involved parties have received relevant requests for information which they’re obligated to reply.


                      UPD: MTS has provided a scan of the FSB letter, which is the basis for restricting the access. Justification: the ongoing Universiade in Krasnoyarsk and “phone terrorism”. It’s supposed to prevent ProtonMail emails from going to emergency addresses of security services and schools.


                      UPD: Protonmail was surprised by “these strange Russians” and their methods for battling fraud abuse, as well as suggested a more effective way to do it — via abuse mailbox.


                      UPD: FSB’s justification doesn’t appear to be true: the bans broke ProtonMail’s incoming mail, rather than outgoing.


                      UPD: Protonmail shrugged and changed the IP addresses of their MXs taking them out of the blocking after that particular FSB letter. What will happen next is open ended question.


                      UPD: Apparently, such letter was not the only one and there is still a set of IP addresses of VOIP-services which are blocked without appropriate records in the official registry of restricted websites.

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                    • Generating multi-brand multi-platform icons with Sketch and a Node.js script — Part #2



                        This is the second part of a post about the creation of a pipeline that can take a Sketch file and export all the icons included in the file, in different formats, for different platforms, with the possibility of AB testing each icon.

                        You can read the first part of the post here.



                        The Sketch files, with all the icons collected, styled and properly named, were ready. Now it was time to start writing the code.

                        Suffice to say, the process was very much a trial and error: after the important initial code core, developed by my team lead Nikhil Verma (who set the script foundations), I went through an incremental process that required at least three phases of refactoring and quite a few revisions. For this reason, I won’t go into too much detail on how the script was developed, but rather focus on how the script works today, in its final shape.
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                      • How to Discover MongoDB and Elasticsearch Open Databases

                          Some time ago among security researchers, it was very “fashionable” to find improperly configured AWS cloud storages with various kinds of confidential information. At that time, I even published a small note about how Amazon S3 open cloud storage is discovered.


                          However, time passes and the focus in research has shifted to the search for unsecured and exposed public domain databases. More than half of the known cases of large data leaks over the past year are leaks from open databases.



                          Today we will try to figure out how such databases are discovered by security researchers...

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                        • VShard — horizontal scaling in Tarantool



                            Hi, my name is Vladislav, and I am a member of the Tarantool development team. Tarantool is a DBMS and an application server all in one. Today I am going to tell the story of how we implemented horizontal scaling in Tarantool by means of the VShard module.

                            Some basic knowledge first.

                            There are two types of scaling: horizontal and vertical. And there are two types of horizontal scaling: replication and sharding. Replication ensures computational scaling whereas sharding is used for data scaling.

                            Sharding is also subdivided into two types: range-based sharding and hash-based sharding.

                            Range-based sharding implies that some shard key is computed for each cluster record. The shard keys are projected onto a straight line that is separated into ranges and allocated to different physical nodes.

                            Hash-based sharding is less complicated: a hash function is calculated for each record in a cluster; records with the same hash function are allocated to the same physical node.

                            I will focus on horizontal scaling using hash-based sharding.
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                          • 1C and Elastic Compute Service Alibaba Cloud

                              If you know how to do something well, there is always an Asian who can do better
                              (one of the most popular Internet memes).

                              Aliexpress has already become a household name in the whole world. But Alibaba Group is not only the Internet mall, but also the number one cloud computing service in China. I ask those who are interested under the cut…

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                            • DoT for RPZ distribution

                                Just a few months ago there were a lot of buzz because IETF in expedited time frame (about one year) accepted DNS over HTTPS (DoH) as a standard (RFC-8484). The discussions about that are still going on because of its controversy. My personal opinion is that DoH is good for personal privacy (if you know how to use it and trust your DNS provider) but it is a security risk for enterprises. DNS over TLS (DoT) is a better alternative for enterprise customers only because it uses a well-defined TCP port but for personal privacy it is not good because of the same reason (easy to block).
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                              • How to vendor a git into another git

                                  Discovering git vendor extension.


                                  Cross-post from my medium blog: https://medium.com/opsops/git-vendor-295db4bcec3a


                                  I would like to introduce the proper way to handle vendoring of git repositories.


                                  What is is ‘vendoring’?


                                  Vendoring is a way to integrate other’s work into your own. It’s the opposite of ‘linking’ against third-party library. Instead of having that library as a dependency, application uses this library as a part of own source code and keep that code ‘inside’ itself.


                                  Normally, vendoring is done by language tooling: bundler, cargo, pip, etc. But sometimes you need to vendor something not covered by any existing toolset, or something multi-language, that it’s impossible to find the ‘core’ language tool for that.


                                  The solution for this situation is vendoring on a git level. You have your own git repository (I call it ‘destination repo’), and you want to incorporate some other repository (I call it ‘source repo’) as a directory into your (destination repo).


                                  The things you expect from a well-designed vendoring system (regardless of Git it is or not):


                                  • Visibility. You want to know that some code is vendored, means it wasn’t written by committer.
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                                • Eliminating opportunities for traffic hijacking


                                    Beautiful scheme for BGP connection to Qrator filtering network

                                    A little historical overview


                                    • BGP hijacks — when an ISP originates an advertisement of address space that does not belong to it;
                                    • BGP route leaks — when an ISP advertises prefixes received from one provider or peer to another provider or peer.

                                    This week it has been 11 years since the memorable YouTube BGP incident, provoked by the global propagation of a more specific prefix announce, originated by the Pakistan Telecom, leading to an almost 2 hour in duration traffic disruption in the form of redirecting traffic from legitimate path to the bogus one. We could guess if that event was intentional, and even a correct answer wouldn’t help us completely prevent such incidents from happening today. While you read this, a route leak or a hijack is spreading over the networks. Why? Because BGP is not easy, and configuring a correct and secure setup is even harder (yet).

                                    In these eleven years, BGP hijacking became quite damaging attack vector due to the BGP emplacement in the architecture of modern internet. Thanks to BGP, routers not only acquire peer information, and therefore all the Internet routes — they are able of calculating the best path for traffic to its destination through many intermediate (transit) networks, each representing an individual AS. A single AS is just a group of IPv4 and/or IPv6 networks operating under a single external routing policy.
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