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RS485 — a standard for industrial networks. What are the main features of the transceiver microcircuit?

Миландр corporate blogCircuit designManufacture and development of electronicsElectronics for beginnersSystems engineering

When building a network for communication between a large number of devices, one may think: what interface to choose? Each interface has its own pros and cons that determine its application: CAN — Automotive, RS485 / RS232 — Industrial, Ethernet — Consumer Electronics / Server. What features of the transceiver microcircuit help to protect against many problems during installation and operation? How is the process of measuring and researching of transceiver microcircuits going on? New RS485 microcircuit is ready to get to market!
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Total votes 4: ↑4 and ↓0+4
Views340
Comments 0

Gyrators

Circuit designManufacture and development of electronicsDIYElectronics for beginners
Tutorial


Gyrators are impedance converters usually used to simulate inductance in circuits. Though they are rarely used in discrete electronics, they are interesting circuits looking like pole dancers in pictures. There are studies on gyrators, but still something is missing, so it is interesting to do another one.
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Total votes 4: ↑4 and ↓0+4
Views824
Comments 0

Russian microcontroller K1986BK025 based on the RISC-V processor core for smart electricity meters

Миландр corporate blogInformation SecurityLanguage localisationManufacture and development of electronics
Welcome to RISC-V era!

Solutions based on the open standard instruction set architecture RISC-V are currently increasing their presence on the market. Microcontrollers from Chinese colleagues are already in serial production; Microchip is offering interesting solutions with FPGA on board. The ecosystem of software and design tools for this architecture are also growing. Seeming previously unshaken leaders have more often found themselves in resale ads, while young startups attract multi-million investments. Milandr also got involved in this race and today began supplying interested companies with samples of its new K1986BK025 microcontroller based on the RISC-V processor core for electricity meters. Well here we go, pictures, characteristics and other information, as well as a little bit of hype under the cut.


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Total votes 9: ↑9 and ↓0+9
Views3.2K
Comments 0

Active Termination Drivers

Circuit designManufacture and development of electronicsDIYElectronics for beginners
Tutorial


The easiest way to build a driver with specified output impedance is to use an amplifier with high load compatibility and add a resistor to its output. The penalty is a voltage drop across this resistor, so there is power loss and we need a higher supply voltage. If our driver is able to deliver the same voltage and current to the same load, but the extra resistor will have a lower value, our device will be able to deliver the same output power at a lower supply voltage. Less power losses, less heat, and longer working time when a battery is used.
There is an idea how to solve this problem: active termination. We can synthesize the output impedance!

Now when we know what we want, go to design our drivers!
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Total votes 6: ↑6 and ↓0+6
Views1.5K
Comments 0

Compensation for Error Caused by Limited Gain-Bandwidth of Operational Amplifiers in Low-pass Filters

Circuit designManufacture and development of electronicsDIYElectronics for beginners
Tutorial
Amateur vs Pro

An operational amplifier has the internal compensation circuit for stability which limits its working bandwidth. Frequency response of the compensated Op Amp has slope of −6 dB/octave or −20 dB/decade. Unity gain frequency defines the bandwidth where the Op Amp is able to amplify a signal. If we multiply the gain and frequency at any point, the result is the same, allowing us to use this parameter to select the appropriate Op Amp. It is called Gain-Bandwidth Product, GBW or GBP. The limited open-loop gain introduces a closed-loop gain and phase error.

But we want to optimize our circuits, right?
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Total votes 8: ↑8 and ↓0+8
Views1.5K
Comments 0

Common misconceptions about space-grade integrated circuits

Circuit designManufacture and development of electronicsPopular scienceAstronauticsElectronics for beginners

Space exploration was always fascinating, and recent developments have reignited the interest to the heights never seen since the last man stood on the Moon. People argue about Mars exploration and features of spaceships as their grandparents would’ve done if the internet existed fifty years ago. I’m an electronics engineer working in the aerospace industry, so I know a thing or two about the technical background of this stuff — and I see that these things aren’t common knowledge, and people often have significantly skewed ideas about the reasons behind many things and decisions. Namely, I’d love to speak of some misconceptions about radiation hardened integrated circuits and the means of protection from radiation-induced damage.

So, let's start our journey
Total votes 15: ↑15 and ↓0+15
Views15K
Comments 35

How to verify Switching-Mode Power Supply circuits

CAD/CAMCircuit designManufacture and development of electronicsDIY
Sandbox
It is always good practice to verify a circuit before using.

Switching-Mode Power Supplies are the most used circuits nowadays. But there are some difficulties with verifying their circuits: vendors do not publish models for all controllers; a model can be locked to be used with some tool; there can be errors in a model; average models want correct parameters and you need some practice of using them; transient models take a lot of time to get small-signal response and also can have errors.

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Total votes 5: ↑5 and ↓0+5
Views1.1K
Comments 0

Lab tour: Functional Materials and Devices of Optoelectronics at ITMO University

ITMO University corporate blogDevelopment for IOTManufacture and development of electronicsOffices of IT companiesPhysics
Today we’re taking a look at the Functional Materials and Devices of Optoelectronics Lab at ITMO University, the equipment it houses, and the projects underway at the facility. It is an international research facility located in the center of St. Petersburg. The staff is primarily occupied with the search for innovative materials (semiconductors, metals, and nanostructured oxides), and the manufacturing of next-gen micro- and optoelectronic gadgets. Here we take a look at the high-tech equipment it utilizes.

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Total votes 10: ↑9 and ↓1+8
Views675
Comments 0

Reverse engineering a high-end soldering station

Reverse engineeringCircuit designManufacture and development of electronicsDIY


(This is the translation of the original article performed by baragol)

We had a bunch of photographs of the main PCB, a YouTube video with drain-voltage waveforms of MOSFETs, a forum post with a breakdown of the capacitance values of LC circuit capacitors and also a number of unboxing videos showing the heating-up of the soldering tip. The only thing that really worried me was the video with the measurement of the peak power consumption during the heating-up. There is nothing in the world more helpless and irresponsible and depraved than burned cartridge newly bought for 60 bucks from Amazon. But let me start from the beginning.
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Total votes 24: ↑23 and ↓1+22
Views13K
Comments 1

Physical unclonable functions: protection for electronics against illegal copying

Information SecurityIT StandardsFPGAResearch and forecasts in ITManufacture and development of electronics
Translation

Source: The online counterfeit economy: consumer electronics, a report made by CSC in 2017

Over the past 10 years, the number of fake goods in the world has doubled. This data has been published in the latest Year-End Intellectual Property Rights Review by the US Department of Homeland Security in 2016 (the most current year tracked). A lot of the counterfeiting comes from China (56%), Hong Kong (36%) and Singapore (2%). The manufacturers of original goods suffer serious losses, some of which occur on the electronics market.

Many modern products contain electronic components: clothes, shoes, watches, jewellery, cars.
Last year, direct losses from the illegal copying of consumer electronics and electronic components in the composition of other goods were about $0.5 trillion.

How to solve this problem?
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Total votes 14: ↑14 and ↓0+14
Views4.3K
Comments 0

Chemistry lesson: how to expose a microchip's crystal for photography

Reverse engineeringManufacture and development of electronicsChemistryElectronics for beginners
Sandbox

Introduction


If you have dabbled into microchip photographing before, then this article will probably not offer much to you. But if you want to get into it, but don’t know where to start, then it’s exactly for you.


Before we start, a fair warning: while the procedure is quite entertaining, at first it’ll probably be physically painful. The chemicals used during the process are toxic, so please handle them carefully – that way it’ll still hurt, but less so. Also, if you have even a slight amount of common sense, conduct the procedure in a fully-equipped chemical laboratory under supervision of trained professionals: we’ve had to deal with people who tried to do it at home immediately after reading the guide. And finally: if you don’t know whether you need to pour acid into water or water into acid without a Google search and don’t realize what this lack of knowledge will entail – stop reading this immediately and go to a chemistry 101 course in a local college or something.


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Total votes 25: ↑24 and ↓1+23
Views1.3K
Comments 0

System in Package, or What's Under Chip Package Cover?

FPGACircuit designManufacture and development of electronicsComputer hardwareCPU
Transistor feature size is decreasing despite constant rumors about the death of Moore’s law and the fact that industry is really close to physical limits of miniaturisation (or even went through them with some clever technology tricks). Moore’s law, however, created user’s appetite for innovation, which is hard to handle for the industry. That’s why modern microelectronic products aren’t just feature size scaled, but also employ a number of other features, often even more complicated than chip scaling.


Disclaimer: This article is a slightly updated translation of my own piece published on this very site here. If you're Russian-speaking, you may want to check the original. If you're English-speaking, it's worth noting that English is not my native language, so I'll be very grateful for the feedback if you find something weird in the text.
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Total votes 38: ↑38 and ↓0+38
Views3.2K
Comments 0

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