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Digital modeling of analog guitar distortion effects

Circuit design *Manufacture and development of electronics *Software DIY Sound

The sound of rock music, in particular of hard rock and heavy metal, is largely based on a specially distorted guitar sound, for which electronic “distortion” devices, tube amplifiers in “overloaded” mode, computers with appropriate software and digital processors are used. increasingly using neural network algorithms.

The distorted sound of electric guitars began to gain popularity around the 1960s. Since that time, the sound of overloaded tube amplifiers, connected to powerful dedicated guitar speakers with large dedicated speakers, has been considered the benchmark in rock music. But tube amplifiers were relatively expensive and inconvenient to operate. Therefore, semiconductor distortion devices were developed.

At that time, the electrical circuitry of distortion devices was relatively simple and the signal output from their output only vaguely resembled the sound of an overloaded tube amplifier. Nevertheless, it was still somewhat similar to the “sound of a lamp” and this provided a powerful incentive for designers of analog semiconductor distortion circuits to continue their research, complicate circuits and propose new circuit solutions. The heyday of analog solid-state distortion was around 1995-2010. The most popular were electrical circuit diagrams like those shown in the figure below.

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Total votes 3: ↑3 and ↓0 +3
Views 433
Comments 0

Android for electronics design engineers

CAD/CAM *Circuit design *Manufacture and development of electronics *DIY Electronics for beginners

There is a list of well-known electronics design tools for Android which can be found in every review for the last 10 years: “Electrodoc”, “Every Circuit”, “Droid Tesla”, “Electronics Toolbox”, “RF & Microwave Toolbox” and so on. Also, there is a lot of trash on the market that turns finding a good tool into a quest.

This short review is about an unknown but cool tool “Circuit Calculator” working on Android devices and intended for professional electronics designers.

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Total votes 4: ↑4 and ↓0 +4
Views 1.3K
Comments 0

Making an Encoder Cable for Servosila Brushless Motor Controller. Testing in Direct Drive mode

Robotics development *Development for IOT *Manufacture and development of electronics *DIY Electronics for beginners
Tutorial

In this video, we are making a cable for connecting a quadrature encoder to a Servosila brushless motor controller, and and then running a servo motor in Direct Drive mode. To make the cable we are using a cable assembly kit that can be purchased from the internet store. Alternatively, the components for the cable can be bought in other places. The part numbers are given in the controller's datasheet.

The cable assembly kit consists of a connector and a set of wires with pre-crimped socket blades. If you have a crimper tool, you can also attach the socket blades to wires by yourself.

Lets open a datasheet document that comes with the brushless motor controller. Note that each connector has its first pin clearly marked with a "1" sign. Conventionally, the numbering of pins is done in such a way that there are rows of odd-numbered and even-numbered pins.

The quadrature encoder's electrical interface has 5 wires in total. Positions of the pins of each of the wires are given in the table. The socket blades need to be pushed into the connector until you feel a "click". The blades lock into the connector's sockets. Optionally, primarily for cosmetic reasons, you may want to add a heat-shrink tubing to your cable.

The brushless motor controllers come in two distinct forms, a circular and a rectangular one. Both models are identical in terms of capabilities, features, firmware, and external electrical connectors.

The connector has a locking mechanism that keeps it in place. I soldered a mating connector to the other side of the cable - a connector that my brushless motor needs. Note that your motor will likely require a different connector, or no connector at all. It is always a good idea to test an end-to-end integrity of the cable and its connectors. Lets buzz the wires using a multimeter. The cable is ready.

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Total votes 5: ↑3 and ↓2 +1
Views 643
Comments 0

SEPIC-Ćuk split-rail converter average model

Circuit design *Manufacture and development of electronics *DIY Electronics for beginners
Tutorial

SEPIC-Ćuk split-rail converter can be used to make positive and negative supplies from a single input voltage for relatively well-matched loads like operational amplifiers.

Transient models are time consuming. Average models reduce modeling time drastically.

The PWM switch average models for current- and voltage-mode are described in details in Christophe Basso’s book “Switch-Mode Power Supplies, Second Edition: SPICE Simulations and Practical Designs”. Using of these models for SEPIC and Ćuk converters is also shown.

This text shows how to use the PWM switch average model to design a split-rail SEPIC-Ćuk converter.

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Total votes 4: ↑4 and ↓0 +4
Views 789
Comments 0

A note on small-signal modeling of SEPIC CM CCM

CAD/CAM *Circuit design *Manufacture and development of electronics *DIY Electronics for beginners
Tutorial

Knowing parameters of small-signal control-to-output transfer functions makes it easier for engineers to design compensation networks of DC/DC converters. The equations for SEPIC can be found in different works and Application Notes, but there are differences. A work has been done to solve this problem.

Simplified design equations for SEPIC with Current Mode control (CM) in Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM) suitable for practical design of compensation networks are shown.

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Total votes 3: ↑3 and ↓0 +3
Views 2K
Comments 0

Controlling Brushless Motors using a Linux computer or a PLC

*nix *SCADA *Computer hardware DIY Electronics for beginners
Tutorial

In this video, we will look at how to connect brushless motor controllers to a Linux computer. Specifically, we will use a computer running Debian. The same steps would work for Ubuntu Linux and other Linux distributions derived from Debian.

I've got a small sensorless brushless motor, and a bigger brushless motor with a built-in absolute encoder. Lets look at how to control those from my Debian Linux computer. Servosila brushless motor controllers come in several form factors with either a circular or a rectangular shape. The controllers come with a set of connectors for motors and encoders as well as for USB or CANbus networks.

The controllers can be powered by a power supply unit or by a battery. To spice up my setup, I am going to use a battery to power the controllers and thus their motors. The controllers need 7 to 60 volts DC of voltage input. If I connect the battery, the controllers get powered up. The small LED lights tells us that the controllers are happy with the power supply.

We need to connect the brushless motor controllers to the Linux computer. There are two ways to do that - via CANbus or via USB. Lets look at the USB option first. A regular USB cable is used. Only one of the controllers needs to be connected to a computer or a PLC.

Next, we need to build an internal CANbus network between the controllers. We are going to use a CANbus cross-cable to interconnect the controllers. Each controller comes with two identical CANbus ports that help chain multiple controllers together in a network. If one of the interconnected brushless motor controllers is connected to a computer via USB, then that particular controller becomes a USB-to-CANbus gateway for the rest of the network. Up to 16 controllers can be connected this way via a single USB cable to the same control computer or a PLC. The limit is due to finite throughput of the USB interface.

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Total votes 4: ↑3 and ↓1 +2
Views 1.6K
Comments 0

Doubling effective digitization frequency by multiple pass approach, is it possible?

Algorithms *Programming microcontrollers *DIY

As already described in the previous article, in the process of reworking the DSO138 oscilloscope toy, the idea arose in the DSO303 firmware at some point to try to double the maximum sampling frequency to achieve scanning times of 500 and 200 nanoseconds per cell. In fact, for the STM32F303, the theoretically maximum achievable sampling rate from the point of view of the ADC input, and this is determined by the minimum opening time of the ADC sampling unit, which in our case is 1.5 clock cycles x (1/72 MHz) = 20.8 nanoseconds, is 48 MSPS (millions of counts per second). However, with the parallel operation of 4 ADCs at 6 MHz, it is possible to achieve only 24 MSPS due to the limited speed of the ADC.

Let's imagine that we are considering correctly-periodic signal, which is also constant, i.e. it does not experience fluctuations in frequency and amplitude over time. Is it possible to somehow digitize it not in one, but in several passes, thereby increasing the effective sampling frequency? 

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Rating 0
Views 676
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DSO138 upgrade

Programming microcontrollers *Circuit design *DIY Electronics for beginners

On Ali, an interesting toy – an oscilloscope called DSO138 is sold for a very inexpensive price. It has already gained quite a lot of popularity among electronics lovers, but the parameters of this device, alas, allow it to be more or less fully used only for debugging very low-frequency circuits. Actually, it is not positioned as a tool, but rather as a DIY-kit for novice electronics engineers.

This "toy" oscilloscope is assembled on the STM32F103 microcontroller, and with a fairly competent circuit design of the digital part, the presence of a fairly decent 320X240-dot color display, and not the most rotten analog path, everything, alas, is ruined by very weak ADCs on board the 32F103. The claimed band of 200 kHz can be recognized as such only with a very large stretch. Yes, it will show the presence or absence of a signal with such a frequency, but it will not be possible to really look at something beyond this.

At the same time, the 103-series has a slightly more powerful brother - the STM32F303, it is almost completely compatible with the legs, but it is significantly better in terms of the parameters we are interested in, there are 4 ADCs on board with a conversion frequency of 5 MHz (6 MHz with a 10-bit resolution). In this scenario, if you use all 4 ADCs in parallel with a 10-bit resolution, you can get a effective resolution of up to an honest 24 MSPS (millions of samples per second). The microcontroller is also inexpensive; you can easily find it on the same Ali for very reasonable money again. It is clear that the idea to change the microcontroller arose almost immediately after I tried this DSO138.

At the same time, if upgraded the toy can turn out to be a completely full-fledged tool that even professionals, not just novice amateurs, could already use. With these thoughts in mind, I decided to try to do something with a Chinese toy in my free time.

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Total votes 5: ↑5 and ↓0 +5
Views 2.2K
Comments 0

Building an Arduino based RFID Emulator

RUVDS.com corporate blog Information Security *Programming microcontrollers *Developing for Arduino *DIY
Tutorial

This project is aimed at creating an experimental device for emulating RFID labels of three widely available components. I simplified the explanation of the process so that it could be easily replicated. I also developed some helpful ideas along the way, including writing a special program for converting a serial number into the transmitted data, which will definitely prove useful.
Total votes 21: ↑20 and ↓1 +19
Views 4.9K
Comments 0

How to be good in hackathons as a developer? Practice creating simple pet projects

.NET *API *Google API *C# *DIY
Sandbox

Hackathons could be very intimidating and stressful. The key to getting better is doing simple projects. In this article, we will look at an example of a web app that can be used for sharpening your skills when you prepare for a hackathon. We will use a powerful Google API based on Machine Learning and apply the following technologies: ASP.NET, HTML, Docker, Heroku, and Git.

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Total votes 5: ↑5 and ↓0 +5
Views 2.6K
Comments 1

Gyrators

Circuit design *Manufacture and development of electronics *DIY Electronics for beginners
Tutorial


Gyrators are impedance converters usually used to simulate inductance in circuits. Though they are rarely used in discrete electronics, they are interesting circuits looking like pole dancers in pictures. There are studies on gyrators, but still something is missing, so it is interesting to do another one.
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Total votes 4: ↑4 and ↓0 +4
Views 1.9K
Comments 0

Koyaanisqatsi: The WYSIWYG-style byte-code CPU

Creative Commons *FPGA *DIY
Draft diagram of core

SVG-File (actual draft)

Lyrics


Ancient times are known to everyone not with immortal works from Homer's only, but also with the Pythagorean multiplication table, Euclidean geometry and the Archimedes screw and the Pi, which we learned to use only relatively recently. In antiquity the art was not only to be able to write poetry and prose, but to design catapults or battering tools also, now there are rigid frameworks, when the discovering the new another beautiful formula is a formal words play only.
Mathematics rules the modern world completely, cynically intertwining with the world of art, intruding with calculations in all spheres of our recreation and everyday life, when the colors of masterpieces turning into poisonous colours.
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Total votes 2: ↑2 and ↓0 +2
Views 1.1K
Comments 0

How I create browser applications inside browsers

JavaScript *Programming *HTML *Browsers DIY
Translation

GitJS


In 2013 Canonical tried to crowdfund Ubuntu Edge smartphone. Its main feature could be the ability to use the smartphone as a full-fledged PС. Unfortunatly, the crowdfunding campaign did not accumulate enough money, so a dream of having a universal device remained to be the dream.


I've been searching for universality, too, on the software side, not the hardware one. Today I can confidently say I found the necessary combination: Git and JavaScript.


As you know, I have already described the benefits of browser applications (nCKOB static site generator) and the benefits of using Git instead of yet another back-end with API (GitBudget to track personal spendings). Once GitBudget was out, I spent the remaining 2020 to build a system allowing one to create browser applications right inside browsers. GitJS is the name of that system.

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Rating 0
Views 1.2K
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Robotic Floor Washer

Robotics 3D printers DIY
Tutorial

When we think about robots, the first thing that comes to mind are robotic vacuum cleaners. The reason is simple: they are the most "solid" demonstration of success of "consumer" robotics. So making one sounds like a good idea... at first.

But isn't it a bit counter productive - to build something that popular, something we can buy in a store at a commodity (small) price? Should we build something similar, but NOT a vacuum cleaner? Something like... a floor washer, perhaps? Yes, a robotic floor washer.

In this tutorial I am going to build a fully working prototype of a robotic floor washer. By "fully working" I mean that it is going to wash floor, instead of moving dirt around like most robotic "moppers" do. While by "prototype" I mean it is going to be the first step towards production-ready unit, but not a production-ready unit yet. Let me explain.

First of all, it is not going to be THAT solid. You can grab a robotic vacuum cleaner that you got from the store by any part, including wheels and bumper and lift it. It will not fall apart. Ours probably will. The reason is, to make a device "mechanically solid" is a separate task, and if we focus on it, then "robotic" tasks will become more difficult to achieve. So we are going to do what engineers usually do: first they build C3PO without the outside body, wires everywhere and so on. And only then they put a gold-covered outfit on it.

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Total votes 12: ↑12 and ↓0 +12
Views 1.5K
Comments 11

Active Termination Drivers

Circuit design *Manufacture and development of electronics *DIY Electronics for beginners
Tutorial


The easiest way to build a driver with specified output impedance is to use an amplifier with high load compatibility and add a resistor to its output. The penalty is a voltage drop across this resistor, so there is power loss and we need a higher supply voltage. If our driver is able to deliver the same voltage and current to the same load, but the extra resistor will have a lower value, our device will be able to deliver the same output power at a lower supply voltage. Less power losses, less heat, and longer working time when a battery is used.
There is an idea how to solve this problem: active termination. We can synthesize the output impedance!

Now when we know what we want, go to design our drivers!
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Total votes 6: ↑6 and ↓0 +6
Views 2.5K
Comments 0
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