• Physical unclonable functions: protection for electronics against illegal copying

    • Translation

    Source: The online counterfeit economy: consumer electronics, a report made by CSC in 2017

    Over the past 10 years, the number of fake goods in the world has doubled. This data has been published in the latest Year-End Intellectual Property Rights Review by the US Department of Homeland Security in 2016 (the most current year tracked). A lot of the counterfeiting comes from China (56%), Hong Kong (36%) and Singapore (2%). The manufacturers of original goods suffer serious losses, some of which occur on the electronics market.

    Many modern products contain electronic components: clothes, shoes, watches, jewellery, cars.
    Last year, direct losses from the illegal copying of consumer electronics and electronic components in the composition of other goods were about $0.5 trillion.

    How to solve this problem?
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  • System in Package, or What's Under Chip Package Cover?

      Transistor feature size is decreasing despite constant rumors about the death of Moore’s law and the fact that industry is really close to physical limits of miniaturisation (or even went through them with some clever technology tricks). Moore’s law, however, created user’s appetite for innovation, which is hard to handle for the industry. That’s why modern microelectronic products aren’t just feature size scaled, but also employ a number of other features, often even more complicated than chip scaling.


      Disclaimer: This article is a slightly updated translation of my own piece published on this very site here. If you're Russian-speaking, you may want to check the original. If you're English-speaking, it's worth noting that English is not my native language, so I'll be very grateful for the feedback if you find something weird in the text.
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    • A Practical Implementation of the Switching Generator Using Verilog HDL

      Abstract


      Linear feedback shift registers are an excellent tool for implementing a pseudo random bit generator in hardware; they inhibit a simple and efficient electronic structure. Further, they are capable of producing output sequences with large periods and good statistical properties. However, standard LFSRs are not cryptographically secure, since the output sequence can be uniquely predicted given a small number of key stream bits using Berlekamp-Massey algorithm. Several methods have been proposed to destroy the linearity inherent in LFSR design. These methods include nonlinear combination generators, nonlinear filter generators, and clock controlled generators. Nevertheless, they remain vulnerable to many attacks such as side channel attacks and algebraic attacks. In 2015, a new clocked controlled generator, called the switching generator, was proposed. This new generator has been proven to be resistant to algebraic attacks and side channel attacks, while preserving efficiency and security requirements. In this project, we present a design of the switching generator using Verilog HDL.
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    • Real-time edge detection using FPGA

      Introduction


      Our project implements a real-time edge detection system based on capturing image frames from an OV7670 camera and streaming them to a VGA monitor after applying a grayscale filter and Sobel operator. Our design is built on a Cyclone IV FPGA board which enables us to optimize the performance using the powerful features of the low-level hardware and parallel computations which is important to meet the requirements of the real-time system.


      We used ZEOWAA FPGA development board which is based on Cyclone IV (EP4CE6E22C8N). Also, we used Quartus Prime Lite Edition as a development environment and Verilog HDL as a programming language. In addition, we used the built-in VGA interface to drive the VGA monitor, and GPIO (General Pins for Input and Output) to connect the external hardware with our board.


      ZEOWAA FPGA development board

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    • Stack-based calculator on the Cyclone IV FPGA board

      Introduction


      As first-year students of Innopolis University, we had an opportunity to make our own project in computer architecture. University suggested us several projects and we have chosen to make a stack-based calculator with reverse polish notation. One of the requirements for the project is to use FPGA board provided by the university.



      As our board, we have chosen Cyclon IV. Therefore, we had to write code on hardware description language. In the course we have studied Verilog, so we have chosen it. Also, the university has additional modules for FPGA, such as numpad, thus we decided to use it in our project.

      In this article, we want to share our knowledge about FPGA and Verilog, also provide you with a tutorial to repeat our project.
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