• How to Set Up Your Own VPN Server in 15 Minutes

    If you use Habr, chances are, you’re conscious about privacy on the web. As governments and corporations tighten their grip on people’s online activities, the issue of keeping your browsing data to yourself becomes more and more relevant.


    Numerous tech websites say VPN is no longer a geek-only thing, and regular people should use it, too (Fast Company, Mashable, PCMag). But as a tech-savvy person, you know there isn’t a service you can trust as much as the one you host and manage yourself.


    With this post, you’ll deploy your own instance of Outline VPN on AWS.

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  • Google+ is Dead. So what?

      Google shut down their social media platform Google+ on April 2, 2019. It’s hard to find some technical article that hasn’t mentioned the end of Google’s social network era. But, a high level of consistency in connectivity within services of the company had received scant attention. In this article I would like to share my thoughts on the internal way of Google services consistency and what it means for Google API users when it comes to a Google+ shutdown.

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    • Bad news, everyone! New hijack attack in the wild

        On March 13, a proposal for the RIPE anti-abuse working group was submitted, stating that a BGP hijacking event should be treated as a policy violation. In case of acceptance, if you are an ISP attacked with the hijack, you could submit a special request where you might expose such an autonomous system. If there is enough confirming evidence for an expert group, then such a LIR would be considered an adverse party and further punished. There were some arguments against this proposal.

        With this article, we want to show an example of the attack where not only the true attacker was under the question, but the whole list of affected prefixes. Moreover, it again raises concerns about the possible motives for the future attack of this type.
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      • BGP perforating wound

          It was an ordinary Thursday on 4.04.2019. Except that at some point of the midday timeline an AS60280 belonging to Belarus’ NTEC leaked 18600 prefixes originating from approximately 1400 ASes.

          Those routes were taken from the transit provider RETN (AS9002) and further announced to NTEC’s provider — RU-telecom’s AS205540, which, in its turn, accepted all of them, spreading the leak.

          image
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        • Wireshark 3.x: code analysis under macOS and errors review

            Picture 1

            Wireshark Foundation released the final stable-version of the popular network traffic analyzer — Wireshark 3.0.0. The new release fixes several bugs, it is now possible to analyze the new protocols, apart from that the driver on Npcap WinPcap is replaced. Here is where quoting of the announcement ends and our note about bugs in the project starts off. The projects authors definitely haven't done their best in fixing bugs before the release.

            Let's collect hotfixes right now to give a motive in doing a new release :).

            Introduction


            Wireshark is a well-known tool to capture and analyze network traffic. The program works with the vast majority of known protocols, has intuitive and logical graphical interface, an all-powerful system of filters. Wireshark is cross-platform, works in such OSs, as: Windows, Linux, macOS, Solaris, FreeBSD, NetBSD and many others.

            To do the source code analysis, we used PVS-Studio static code analyzer. To analyze the source code, first we needed to compile the project in an OS. The choice was wide not only due to the cross platform nature of the project, but also because of that of the analyzer. I chose macOS for the analysis. You can also run the analyzer under Windows and Linux.
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          • Web application firewalls

            Web application firewall


            Web application firewalls (WAFs) are a type of intrusion detection and prevention system and might be either a hardware or software solution. It is specifically designed to inspect HTTP(s) and analyse the GET and POST requests using the appalling detection logic explained below. Web application firewall software is generally available as a web server plugin.

            WAF has become extremely popular and various companies offer a variety of solutions in different price categories, from small businesses to large corporations. Modern WAF is popular because it has a wide range of covered tasks, so web application developers can rely on it for various security issues, but with the assumption that this solution cannot guarantee absolute protection. A basic WAF workflow is shown below.



            Its main function is the detection and blocking of queries in which, according to WAF analysis, there are some anomalies, or an attacking vector is traced. Such an analysis should not make it difficult for legitimate users to interact with a web application, but, at the same time, it must accurately and timely detect any attempted attack. In order to implement this functionality, WAF developers usually use regular expressions, tokens, behavioural analysis, reputation analysis and machine learning, and, often, all these technologies are used together.



            In addition, WAF can also provide other functionality: protection from DDoS, blocking of IP-addresses of attackers, tracking of suspicious IP-addresses, adding an HTTP-only flag to the cookie, or adding the functionality of CSRF-tokens. Each WAF is individual and has a unique internal arrangement, but there are some typical methods used for analysis.
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          • Physical unclonable functions: protection for electronics against illegal copying

            • Translation

            Source: The online counterfeit economy: consumer electronics, a report made by CSC in 2017

            Over the past 10 years, the number of fake goods in the world has doubled. This data has been published in the latest Year-End Intellectual Property Rights Review by the US Department of Homeland Security in 2016 (the most current year tracked). A lot of the counterfeiting comes from China (56%), Hong Kong (36%) and Singapore (2%). The manufacturers of original goods suffer serious losses, some of which occur on the electronics market.

            Many modern products contain electronic components: clothes, shoes, watches, jewellery, cars.
            Last year, direct losses from the illegal copying of consumer electronics and electronic components in the composition of other goods were about $0.5 trillion.

            How to solve this problem?
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          • Exploiting signed bootloaders to circumvent UEFI Secure Boot

              Русская версия этой статьи.
              Modern PC motherboards' firmware follow UEFI specification since 2010. In 2013, a new technology called Secure Boot appeared, intended to prevent bootkits from being installed and run. Secure Boot prevents the execution of unsigned or untrusted program code (.efi programs and operating system boot loaders, additional hardware firmware like video card and network adapter OPROMs).
              Secure Boot can be disabled on any retail motherboard, but a mandatory requirement for changing its state is physical presence of the user at the computer. It is necessary to enter UEFI settings when the computer boots, and only then it's possible to change Secure Boot settings.

              Most motherboards include only Microsoft keys as trusted, which forces bootable software vendors to ask Microsoft to sign their bootloaders. This process include code audit procedure and justification for the need to sign their file with globally trusted key if they want the disk or USB flash to work in Secure Boot mode without adding their key on each computer manually.
              Linux distributions, hypervisors, antivirus boot disks, computer recovery software authors all have to sign their bootloaders in Microsoft.

              I wanted to make a bootable USB flash drive with various computer recovery software that would boot without disabling Secure Boot. Let's see how this can be achieved.
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            • Digital Forensics Tips&Tricks: How to Connect an Encase Image to the Virtual Machine

              • Tutorial
              I pretty often meet the question: how to attach an Encase image (.e01) to the virtual machine as a primary bootable disk? Sometimes a digital forensics experts need to boot up the image of the researching machine. It's not so hard actually, but this task has it's hidden stones which ones must be counted.

              For this case I'll use a VMware Workstation for Windows and VirtualBox for Linux as a virtualization platforms.

              Windows Part

              1. Open FTK Imager and mount the .e01 image as a physical (only) device in Writable mode


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